Welcome to UB214B: Worlds of English II, where we will continue to explore the diversity and complexity of the English language in its global context. This course is designed to provide students with a deeper understanding of the different varieties of English spoken around the world and the cultural, historical, and social factors that shape them. We will focus on the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) as a main case study, examining the unique features and characteristics of the English language as it is used and spoken in the country. Students will gain a greater appreciation for the role of English as a global language and its impact on cultural identity, communication, and social interaction. Through a combination of readings, discussions, and research projects, students will have the opportunity to critically engage with the linguistic and cultural complexities of English in the KSA and beyond.
Take Home Exam for Final Assignment 2020-2021- Spring
Warnings and Declaration
Question1 obligatory allocated 18 marks
Question 2 optional allocated 16 marks
Question 3 optional allocated 16 marks
Question 4 optional allocated 16 marks
Part A: Question 1 is obligatory and is allocated 18 marks.
Question 1 (obligatory – 18 marks)
Drawing on the themes studied in U214B, appraise English as a positive resource and identify the areas perceived to relate to its usefulness as a global language.
English is widely considered a positive resource as it is the primary language of international communication and is used in business, education, and media around the world. Additionally, it is the official language in many countries and is widely taught as a second language. This widespread use of English has led to many benefits, such as increased economic opportunities, improved access to information, and the ability to communicate with people from different cultures. However, there are also some concerns associated with the dominance of English as a global language, such as the erosion of linguistic and cultural diversity, and the potential for social and economic inequality between those who are proficient in English and those who are not.
In terms of specific areas, English is particularly useful as a global language in the following areas:
Business: English is widely used as the language of international trade and commerce, making it an essential tool for businesses operating on a global scale.
Education: English is the primary language of instruction in many universities around the world, making it important for students who want to study abroad or pursue international careers.
Science and technology: English is the primary language of scientific research and technological innovation, making it essential for scientists, engineers, and other professionals in these fields.
Media and entertainment: English is the primary language of global media and entertainment, making it important for anyone involved in the production or distribution of films, television shows, music, and other forms of content.
Tourism: English is widely spoken by tour guides and other service providers in popular tourist destinations, making it an important tool for tourists who want to communicate effectively while traveling.
Diplomacy: English is the primary language of diplomacy and international relations, making it essential for diplomats, politicians, and other professionals working in these fields.
However, it’s also important to note that it’s not only English that is used as a global language, Spanish, French, Mandarin, Arabic, and Russian are also spoken globally and have their own areas of dominance.
Part B: Choose TWO QUESTIONS to answer.
Question 2 (optional – 16 marks)
In the contemporary world migration is a widespread phenomenon for various reasons. Draw on your studies and explain the struggles of international migrants and their families to integrate and maintaining their heritage language as part of their distinct identities. Discuss using appropriate examples.
Migration is a widespread phenomenon in the contemporary world and many international migrants and their families face a number of challenges in integrating into their new society while also maintaining their heritage language and distinct identities.
One of the main struggles that international migrants and their families face is the pressure to assimilate into the dominant culture and language of their new country. This can mean that they are expected to give up their heritage language and adopt the language of the host country in order to fit in and be accepted. This can lead to a loss of linguistic and cultural identity, which can be a difficult and painful process for many migrants and their families.
For example, in the United States, many immigrants from Latin America are expected to speak English fluently in order to succeed in their new country. This can lead to a loss of fluency in their heritage language, Spanish, which can be a source of great sadness for many people.
Another struggle that international migrants and their families face is the lack of support for their heritage language in their new country. This can make it difficult for them to maintain their language skills and pass on their heritage language to their children. For example, in Canada, many families of Chinese origin face this struggle as there are not enough Chinese language schools and resources available to support them.
Additionally, the lack of representation and visibility of their heritage culture in the mainstream media and society can also make it difficult for international migrants and their families to maintain their distinct identities. For example, in Australia, Indigenous language speakers face this struggle as their languages are not widely spoken or taught, and they are not well-represented in mainstream media and society.
Overall, international migrants and their families face a number of struggles in integrating into their new society while also maintaining their heritage language and distinct identities. These struggles can include pressure to assimilate, lack of support for their heritage language, and lack of representation and visibility of their heritage culture.
Question 3:(optional – 16 marks)
In the global context, many languages became extinct and others are on the way to extinction. Explain the phenomenon of language death. Use illustrative examples to support your discussion.
Language death, also known as linguistic extinction, refers to the process by which a language becomes no longer spoken or understood by the community that uses it. This phenomenon can occur due to a variety of factors, including changes in demographics, political and economic pressures, and the influence of dominant languages.
One example of language death is the loss of indigenous languages in many parts of the world, such as the Americas and Australia. This is often the result of forced assimilation policies and the suppression of indigenous cultures by colonizers. For example, in the United States, many Native American languages have become endangered or extinct as a result of government policies that sought to assimilate indigenous peoples into the dominant Anglo-American culture.
Another example of language death is the loss of minority languages in multilingual societies. This can occur when a dominant language becomes the primary language of education, commerce, and government, making it more valuable and desirable for individuals to speak. For example, in India, many minority languages are becoming endangered as Hindi and English gain dominance in education and the workforce.
Language death can also occur as a result of population displacement or migration. For example, in the Middle East, many Jewish languages have become endangered or extinct as a result of the displacement of Jewish communities in the 20th century.
Language death is a significant loss not only for linguistic and cultural diversity but also for the cultural heritage and knowledge encoded in the language. It’s important to note that language death is not an inevitable process and that there are efforts to document, revitalize, and preserve endangered languages.
Overall, language death is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon that can occur due to a variety of factors, including changes in demographics, political and economic pressures, and the influence of dominant languages. It’s a loss not only for linguistic and cultural diversity but also for the cultural heritage and knowledge encoded in the language.
Question 4:(optional – 16 marks)
Why the English literary canon was accused of representing the Anglophone elitist culture at the expense of non-Anglophone cultures? Explain using examples.
The English literary canon, which refers to the body of literature considered to be the most important and influential works in the English language, has been accused of representing the Anglophone elitist culture at the expense of non-Anglophone cultures. This is because the canon is typically composed of works written by white, male, and elite authors from the English-speaking world and often reflects the values, perspectives, and experiences of this group.
One example is the lack of representation of non-Anglophone cultures in the canon. The canon is often dominated by authors from the United States, the United Kingdom, and other English-speaking countries, which means that literature from other parts of the world, such as Africa, Asia, and Latin America, is often overlooked or underrepresented.
Another example is the lack of representation of marginalized groups within the Anglophone culture in the canon. The canon is often dominated by literature written by white, male, and elite authors, which means that literature written by women, people of color, and working-class authors is often overlooked or underrepresented.
Additionally, the canon is also often accused of reflecting a Eurocentric perspective and perpetuating the idea that the culture and values of the English-speaking world are superior to those of other cultures. This can be seen in the way that literature from non-Anglophone cultures is often exoticized and treated as inferior.
The canon has been challenged by scholars, writers, and activists who argue that it should be expanded to include more diverse voices and perspectives. This includes works by authors from non-Anglophone cultures and marginalized groups within the Anglophone culture.
In summary, the English literary canon has been accused of representing the Anglophone elitist culture at the expense of non-Anglophone cultures because it is typically composed of works written by white, male, elite authors from the English-speaking world and often reflects the values, perspectives, and experiences of this group. It has been challenged by scholars, writers, and activists who argue that it should be expanded to include more diverse voices and perspectives.
End of Questions