The international tourism and hospitality market

The international tourism and hospitality market

PART B: 4000-word Business Report . This individual business report will be assessed by means of a 4000-word report that will help to solve a problem for your choice of tourism or hospitality organisation from your own country. This word count excludes the title page, executive summary, table of contents, glossary of terms, a list of abbreviations, relevant tables, reference list and appendices.
This assignment has been designed to allow you to develop your knowledge and skills. You will be required to apply research skills, critical thinking and analytical techniques studied in this module.

Requirement:
You must write a report about how the organisation that you have chosen is addressing a problem of the sustainability of toruism development in terms of its processes, customers, or the destination that it is in.
“Sustainable tourism development guidelines and management practices are applicable to all forms of tourism in all types of destinations, including mass tourism and the various niche tourism segments. Sustainability principles refer to the environmental, economic, and socio-cultural aspects
of tourism development, and a suitable balance must be established between these three dimensions to guarantee its long-term sustainability.
Thus, sustainable tourism should:
· Make optimal use of environmental resources that constitute a key element in tourism
development, maintaining essential ecological processes and helping to conserve natural
heritage and biodiversity.
· Respect the socio-cultural authenticity of host communities, conserve their built and living
cultural heritage and traditional values, and contribute to inter-cultural understanding and
tolerance.
· Ensure viable, long-term economic operations, providing socio-economic benefits to all
stakeholders that are fairly distributed, including stable employment and income-earning
opportunities and social services to host communities, and contributing to poverty
alleviation.”
(United Nations World Tourism Organisation, 2021.)

https://www.unwto.org/sustainable-development

 

The report should contain the following elements:

1) Brief executive summary. (excluded from the word count) (5 marks)
2) Glossary of terms and abbreviations: A glossary, also known as a vocabulary, is an alphabetical list of terms in a particular domain of knowledge with the definitions for those terms. This ensures clarification  and  understanding  of  the  terms  used  in  the  report.  (excluded  from  the  word  count)  (5 marks)
3) Introduction to the report and definition of sustainable tourism. (5 marks)
4) Background to the chosen case study supported by data, facts and figures. (5 marks)
5) Problem/Opportunity/Issue: Define the problem, opportunity or issue addressed in the case study.
(5 marks)
6)  Provide  an  extended  critical  review  of  the  academic,  professional  and  client-based  literature, theory and research associated with sustainability and the problem/opportunity/issue that has been
defined in the chosen case study. (20 marks)
7) Evaluate the structures, policies and practices introduced by the case study organisation to achieve success  (15 marks)
8) Critically discuss how the international tourism and hospitality industry generally may be influenced by the drive towards sustainability. (15 marks)
9.) Conclude your report with any key findings and recommendations. (15 marks)
10) References in Harvard format and relevant appendices (both excluded from the word count) (5 marks)
Academic writing, word count, grammar, spelling & presentation. (5 marks)

(100 marks)

 

 

 

 

 

Intended Learning Outcomes

On completion of this module students will be able to:

  1. Critically analyse core concepts of globalisation and the challenges and opportunities it brings to tourism and hospitality organisations and their stakeholders.
  2. Critically evaluate structures, policies and practices relating to international business within tourism and hospitality organisations.
  3. Examine the role of international institutions governing the global economy in terms of their impact on the tourism and hospitality market and businesses
  4. Analyse current and developing issues in the global environment affecting tourism and hospitality organisations and provide detailed argument that explains their impact to the sector.

 

Assessment criteria

The student will be judged on:
· Proficiency with which they critically analyse the challenges and opportunities that
globalisation brings to the sector drawing on relevant supporting literature to support the
points underpinning their thinking.
· How effectively skills of critical evaluation are applied to structures, policies and practices
relating to the sector
· Proficiency with which the role of international institutions and their impact on the sector is
explained and reasoning in support of claims are justified.

 

  • The quality and clarity of argument used in explaining the impact of the changing global
    environment on the sector.

 

Other information

  • Word Count: The word count will include everything in the body of the text, such as quotations,
    citations, footnotes and subheadings. It does not include the assignment title, tables, images,
    bibliography, references, appendices or other supplementary material, which does not form an
    essential part of the text.
    · ‘Footnotes’ encompasses additional explanatory text included at the bottom of a page to
    amplify specific sections of text in the main body of the work.
    · ‘References’ indicates the systematic referencing of the sources used by the text author,
    according to the Harvard system.
    · Penalties: There is an allowance of 10% deviation over the stated maximum word count.
    Keeping within the word limit is part of the marking criteria and an excessive word count beyond
    the allowed 10% over the limit will be taken into account in marking your work.
    · Word Count Declaration: At the end of your assignment you must include the following
    declaration: “This work contains [ ] words”. There are penalties for giving a false word count.

 

 

Indicative readings 

Recommended Core Text: 

Cooper, C. & Hall, M. (2018) Contemporary Tourism: An International Approach. Goodfellow Publishers

Other Texts:

Cavusgil S.T., Ghauri, P., Knight, G. and Riesenberger, J. (2013) International Business. Global Edition. 3rd Edition, Pearson Education.

Clarke, A. (2007) International Hospitality Management: Concepts and Cases. Routledge

Hill, C. W. and Hult, T. M. (2017) International Business: Competing in the Global Marketplace, 11th Edition. McGraw Hill.

Hofstede, G. et al. (2010) Cultures and Organisations: Software of the Mind. 3rd edition, McGraw Hill.

Krugman, P.R. and Obstfeld, M. (2008) International Economics: Theory and Policy. Pearson Education.

Peng, M. W. and Meyer, K. (2019). International Business, 3rd Edition. South Western Cengage Learning.

Porter, M.E. (1990) Competitive Advantage of Nations, New York, Free Press.

Journals and Periodicals

  • Tourism Management
  • Annals of Tourism Research
  • Journal of Destination Marketing and Management
  • Journal of Travel Research
  • International Journal of Tourism Cities
  • International Journal of Tourism Research
  • Harvard Business Review
  • The Wall Street Journal
  • The Economist

Web Sites

Harvard Referencing Guide

 

 

 

Outline Syllabus

 

Topic 1. Introduction to the International Tourism and Hospitality Industries

This  lesson  introduces  you  to  the  study  of  the  international  market  in  which  tourism  and
hospitality  businesses  operate.  In  recent  decades,  the  international  economy  has  rapidly
become  more  integrated.  Trade  in  goods  and  services,  cross-border  investment,  and  the
organisation  of  production  networks  across  borders,  all  have  blossomed.  We  also  consider
some explanations for what has caused the rise in international economic integration. Thus,
in this lesson, we will take a look at the evolution, nature, influences and goals of international
business, and the associated problems. Through your reading and by studying the examples
in this lesson, you will start to develop your understanding of how these developments affect
the tourism and hospitality industries.

PREPARATION
Complete the reading and video material before progressing on to the Learning section.
· Read  the  first  chapter  of  your  Peng  &  Mayer  (2019)  textbook  as  a  background  to
business enterprise in an international environment.
· Read chapter 11 of the Cooper & Hall (2018) textbook paying particular attention to
what is meant by the term ‘globalisation’ and the ‘drivers of globalisation’ in a tourism
context.
· Watch the YouTube video https://youtu.be/GmFsCRY196c for a summary of
international business.

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

International Business – the basics.

International Business – The Basics

Globalisation and Tourism – The Asian Entrepreneur.
https://www.asianentrepreneur.org/globalization-tourism/
Will Globalisation Fragment or Consolidate the Hospitality Industry?
https://blog.ehl.edu/lausanne-report-shaping-the-future-of-hospitality-1
Open source textbook – Competing in a global world
http://www.opentextbooks.org.hk/ditatopic/26788
TEDTalk Navigating our Global Future

Topic 2. Theories of International Trade and Investment

 

This lesson introduces you to key theories of international trade and Foreign Direct Investment
(FDI) which can take many forms of incentives, regulations, and policies. In highly globalised
industries  such  as  tourism  and  hospitality,  understanding  these  arrangements  is  vital  for
analysing the global flows of tourists, capital and information that affect businesses. There’s a
convergence  and,  at  times,  a  conflict  of  the  interests  of  the  different  stakeholders—from
businesses to governments to local communities. In recent years, advances in technology, a
renewed enthusiasm for entrepreneurship, and a global sentiment that favours free trade have
further  connected  people,  businesses,  and  markets.  An  essential  part  of  all  international
business is understanding the history of international trade and what motivates countries to
encourage or discourage trade within their borders. In this lesson we’ll look at the evolution of
international trade theory to our modern time. We’ll explore the political and legal factors
impacting international trade and how these affect tourism and hospitality businesses.

After completing this lesson, you should be able to:

• Discuss international trade theory
• Explain  how  political  and  legal  factors  impact  international  trade  in  tourism  and
hospitality
• Understand  foreign  direct  investment,  and  the  dependant  relationships  this  can
produce in the tourism industry
• Determine which international trade theory is most relevant to tourism and hospitality
today and how it continues to evolve.

PREPARATION

Complete the reading and video material before progressing on to the Learning section.
• Read chapter 4 of your textbook Hill et al (2017) for an overview of International Trade
Theory.
• Read  chapter  11  of  the  Cooper  &  Hall  (2018)  textbook  to  gain  an  overview  of  the
international ‘tourism system’
• Watch  the  YouTube  video  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vvfzaq72wd0    for  a
summary of two key trade theories.

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

• International Business – the basics. https://bookboon.com/blog/2016/12/international-
business-the-basics/
• International Trade
• https://www2.bc.edu/james-anderson/palgravetrade.pdf
• World Travel and Tourism Council Report – Tourism and International Trade
• https://www.wttc.org/publications/other/travel-and-trade-linkages/
• Open source textbook – Competing  in a global world
http://www.opentextbooks.org.hk/ditatopic/26788
• TEDTalk What global trade deals are really about (hint: it’s not trades)
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-v3uqD1hWGE
 

Topic 3 Culture and International Business

 

This  lesson  introduces  you  to  differing  national  cultures  and  theories  through  which  to
understand  national  differences  and  their  impact  on  tourism  and  hospitality  businesses.
Managers working in a multicultural environment or in international business often
misunderstand behavioural and cultural differences and underestimate their role. This reduces
their interpersonal effectiveness in cross cultural business contexts. This lesson is devoted to
the  cultural  environment,  and  its  impact  on  business  operations  in  tourism  and  hospitality,
where  international  tourists  and  guests  are  frequently  served  by  international  teams  of
managers and staff.
It is widely accepted that the more individualistic cultures of northern European countries and
the  US  were  at  the  forefront  of  industrialisation  and  capitalist  development.  But  in  today’s
globalised world, we need to look beyond these cultures and appreciate some of the profound
differences across countries and ethnic groupings.
After completing this lesson, you should be able to:
· Evaluate the impact of culture on business structures and operations in tourism and
hospitality.
· Assess  the  importance  of  national  culture  and  cultural  differences  in  international
business.
· Evaluate differences in the organisational cultures of tourism and hospitality
businesses.
· Apply culture theories in relation to national differences.

PREPARATION
Complete the reading and video material before progressing on to the Learning section.
· Read  chapter  1  of  your  textbook  Hofstede  (2010)  for  an  overview  of  his  analysis  of
national cultures.
· Watch  the  YouTube  video  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=at7srdUiRfM    for  an
overview of culture and communication.
· Visit the Hofstede’s Insights and compare your country’s culture with the UK culture.

Compare countries

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
Culture and International Business: Recent Advances and Their Implications for Future
Research
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/5223147_Culture_and_International_Business_Re
cent_Advances_and_Their_Implications_for_Future_Research
Insights: Understanding Cultural Differences in Hospitality:
https://insights.ehotelier.com/insights/2017/03/17/understanding-cultural-differences-
hospitality/
Open source textbook – Competing  in a global world
http://www.opentextbooks.org.hk/ditatopic/26788
TEDTalk Cultural difference in business. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VMwjscSCcf0

 

Topic 4 The Political Economy of International Business

 

This lesson introduces you to differing economic systems, ranging from free market capitalism
to  socialist  systems  and,  at  the  far  extreme,  communist  command  economies.  All  of  these
have played a crucial role in economic development paths depending on the role of the state
in business the extent to which governments intervene in the running of business activities.
The ways in which economies are designed and managed has implications for the
development of their tourism and hospitality industries, the way in which they are supported
by  governments,  or  guided  by  political  decisions.    Other  factors  such  as  moves  towards
regional  economic  integration,  such  as  EU,  NAFTA,  ASEAN,  also  impact  on  international
tourism and hospitality businesses. Similarly transitional economies are huge growth areas for
tourism  and  hospitality.  The  transitional  economies  of  Central  and  Eastern  Europe  and,
importantly,  China,  are  examined.  Privatisation  of  formerly  state-owned  industries  is  also  a
key aspect of this development and is an area we shall consider.
After completing this lesson, you should be able to:
· Compare  and  contrast  the  ways  in  which  different  models  of  capitalism,  including  free
market,  social  market  and  Asian  models  of  capitalism  affect  the  tourism  and  hospitality
industries.
· Analyse  the  challenges  faced  by  transition  economies  and  the  issues  of  privatisation,
liberalisation and economic development that affect tourism and hospitality.
· Describe  the  nature  and  extent  of  economic  convergence  and  integration,  through
globalisation and regionalisation.
· Assess international market attractiveness based on economic indicators.

PREPARATION
Complete the reading and video material before progressing on to the Learning section.
· Read chapter 2 of your textbook Peng & Meyer (2016) for an overview of economic
systems.
· Read Chapter 6 of your textbook Cooper & Hall (2018) to see how different forms of
government can affect the tourism and hospitality industries.
· Watch the YouTube video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B43YEW2FvDs  for an
overview of national economic systems.
· Visit the World Bank site “The ease of doing business”
· https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ic.bus.ease.xq which measures regulations
directly affecting businesses.

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
Four types of economies – https://www.intelligenteconomist.com/types-of-economies/
Regional Trade Associations https://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/regional-
integration/brief/regional-trade-agreements
Privatization in Developing Countries: What Are the Lessons of Recent Experience?
https://academic.oup.com/wbro/article/33/1/65/4951686
Open source textbook – Competing  in a global world
http://www.opentextbooks.org.hk/ditatopic/26788
EURACTIV: Tourism – a driver for socio-economic progress

Topic 5 Foreign Market Entry

 

This lesson introduces you to differing economic systems, ranging from free market capitalism
to  socialist  systems  and,  at  the  far  extreme,  communist  command  economies.  All  of  these
have played a crucial role in economic development paths depending on the role of the state
in business the extent to which governments intervene in the running of business activities.
The ways in which economies are designed and managed has implications for the
development of their tourism and hospitality industries, the way in which they are supported
by  governments,  or  guided  by  political  decisions.    Other  factors  such  as  moves  towards
regional  economic  integration,  such  as  EU,  NAFTA,  ASEAN,  also  impact  on  international
tourism and hospitality businesses. Similarly transitional economies are huge growth areas for
tourism  and  hospitality.  The  transitional  economies  of  Central  and  Eastern  Europe  and,
importantly,  China,  are  examined.  Privatisation  of  formerly  state-owned  industries  is  also  a
key aspect of this development and is an area we shall consider.
After completing this lesson, you should be able to:
· Compare  and  contrast  the  ways  in  which  different  models  of  capitalism,  including  free
market,  social  market  and  Asian  models  of  capitalism  affect  the  tourism  and  hospitality
industries.
· Analyse  the  challenges  faced  by  transition  economies  and  the  issues  of  privatisation,
liberalisation and economic development that affect tourism and hospitality.
· Describe  the  nature  and  extent  of  economic  convergence  and  integration,  through
globalisation and regionalisation.
· Assess international market attractiveness based on economic indicators.

PREPARATION
Complete the reading and video material before progressing on to the Learning section.
· Read chapter 2 of your textbook Peng & Meyer (2016) for an overview of economic
systems.
· Read Chapter 6 of your textbook Cooper & Hall (2018) to see how different forms of
government can affect the tourism and hospitality industries.
· Watch the YouTube video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B43YEW2FvDs  for an
overview of national economic systems.
· Visit the World Bank site “The ease of doing business”
· https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ic.bus.ease.xq which measures regulations
directly affecting businesses.

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
Four types of economies – https://www.intelligenteconomist.com/types-of-economies/
Regional Trade Associations https://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/regional-
integration/brief/regional-trade-agreements
Privatization in Developing Countries: What Are the Lessons of Recent Experience?
https://academic.oup.com/wbro/article/33/1/65/4951686
Open source textbook – Competing  in a global world
http://www.opentextbooks.org.hk/ditatopic/26788
EURACTIV: Tourism – a driver for socio-economic progress
https://youtu.be/CiGbX-KQW8k.

 

 

Topic 6 international activities of tourism and hospitality businesses

 

In this lesson we will look at the impact of the social environment on international business.
To  understand  the  activities  of  tourism  and  hospitality  businesses  in  different  international
environments, it is vital to develop your understanding of the societies in which they operate.
The  distinctive  characteristics  of  every  society  and  its  way  of  life  impacts  international
business.  For  a  global  corporation  setting  up  operations  across  several  countries,  an
appreciation of the diversity in social environments is necessary.
Clearly  understanding  the  diversity  of  lifestyles  in  social  groupings  is  also  essential  for  the
adoption of a successful marketing strategy. Social stratification and inequalities are an aspect
of  all  societies.  Social  issues  that  are  of  importance  to  both  developed  and  developing
countries are social exclusion, immigration and human development (including education and
healthcare provision). In the industrial societies of Europe and Japan the ageing population is
creating stresses in social welfare systems, while in developing countries, growing populations
and  rapid  urbanisation  are  creating  pressures  on  welfare  services  which  governments  are
struggling to manage.
After completing this lesson, you should be able to:
· Explain the importance of social differences across the globe.
· Contrast the key social issues facing developed and developing countries today.
· Assess the impact of social factors on business structures and operations.
PREPARATION
Complete the reading and video material before progressing on to the Learning section.
· Read  chapter  13  of  your  textbook  Morrison  (2009)  for  an  overview  of  international
business and society
· Read Chapter 2 of DeLoitte’s Social Progress Index
https://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/se/Images/promo_images/artiklar/Th
e_social_progress_Index_chapter2.pdf
· Visit  https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/  and  consider  the  impact  of  the
SDG’s on international business.
· Visit the Central intelligence Agency World Fact Book
· https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/ choose a
country  and  click  through  to  the  “People  and  Society”  section  for  a  profile  of  that
country.

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
Strategies that fit emerging markets https://hbr.org/2005/06/strategies-that-fit-emerging-
markets
World Bank Demographic data https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/sp.pop.totl
World Values Survey – http://www.worldvaluessurvey.org/WVSContents.jsp
Open source textbook – Competing  in a global world
http://www.opentextbooks.org.hk/ditatopic/26788
TEDX – The social responsibility of business

Topic 7 Tourism and hospitality as export industries

 

Global  trade  in  tourism  and  hospitality  depends  on  the  smooth  exchange  of  currencies
between countries. Tourism and Hospitality can play a key role in this as export industries, but
this phenomenon can be complex to understand. This lesson considers the recent history of
global monetary systems and how they have evolved over the past two centuries. While the
current monetary system continues to evolve, lessons learned over the past fifty years help
determine the best future options. Tourism development can particularly be impacted upon by
crises in the global financial system, as was seen post-2008. Understanding the role of the
IMF  and  the  World  Bank  provides  insight  into  how  governments  in  developing  countries
prioritize and fund projects and work with the private sector to implement tourism development
initiatives, and to grow their economies with international support.
After completing this lesson, you should be able to:
· Describe  the  development  of  the  International  Monetary  System  and  contrast  the
different foreign exchange rate systems operational today.
· Assess  the  root  causes  of  the  2008  financial  crisis  and  the  lessons  learnt  for  the
development of the tourism and hospitality industries
· Critically assess the roles of the institutions of global governance, especially the IMF
and World Bank, and how these impact on international tourism and hospitality.
· Explain the nature of tourism and hospitality as export industries
PREPARATION
Complete the reading and video material before progressing on to the Learning section.
· Read  chapter  9  and  10  of  your  textbook  Hill  et  al  (2017)  for  an  overview  of  the
international monetary system.
· Read  the  UN  Pulse  Report  on  the  economic  consequences  of  the  2008  crisis  for
tourism: https://www.unglobalpulse.org/project/economic-crisis-tourism-decline-and-
its-impact-on-the-poor-2011/
· Read  the  article  Impacts  of  the  Global  Economic  Crisis  on  Cyprus  Tourism  –
https://www.academia.edu/download/50744825/jtr.187820161206-21701-ytreq3.pdf
· Watch the YouTube video  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GPOv72Awo68 to gain
insight into the causes of the 2008 recession

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
The World Bank https://www.worldbank.org/
The International Monetary Fund https://www.imf.org/external/index.htm
Skift – ten years later: how the travel industry came back from the financial crisis:
https://skift.com/2018/09/14/10-years-later-how-the-travel-industry-came-back-from-the-
financial-crisis/
Open source textbook – Competing  in a global world
http://www.opentextbooks.org.hk/ditatopic/26788
Ha Joon Chang – Economics for People: Finance and Financial Crises:

Topic 8. Ethics and Sustainability in the tourism and hospitality
industries

This module focuses on the issues of corporate governance, corporate ethics and
sustainability.    For  business  in  the  international  tourism  and  hospitality  industries,  these
areas are fundamental to their future development and this module looks at this issue from a
range  of  different perspectives and  different  national  and  international  contexts. After
completing this lesson, you should be able to:
· Explain the concept of corporate governance
· Understand the implications of poor governance
· Analyse Corporate Social Responsibility strategies
· Explain sustainability in a tourism and hospitality context
· Critically analyse the ethical behaviour of tourism and hospitality companies
PREPARATION
Complete the reading and video material before progressing on to the Learning section.
· Read  chapters  14  and  15  of  your  textbook  Morrison  (2009)  for  an  overview  of
international trade
· Watch  the  YouTube  video  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CE7sRJXNA2A  to  get
an insight into some ethical issues in travel
· Review the UNWTO’s Global Code of Ethics for Tourism website at:
https://www.unwto.org/global-code-of-ethics-for-tourism

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
Raddisson Hotels code of Ethics: https://www.radissonhospitalityab.com/about-us/our-code-
business-ethics
Tourism  Concern:  Ethical  Travel  Guide:  https://www.tourismconcern.org.uk/ethical-travel-
guide/

Topic 9. Future Trends in the Tourism and Hospitality Industries

Government policy and proactive support in technology is critical for technological
advancement in any country. The focus in this lesson is on how developments in technology
are  affecting  our  industries.  Recognising  the  strategic  implications  of  technology  and  the
competitive  edge  it  can  give  companies  and  countries,  we  shall  firstly  outline  the  national
innovation system, including approaches to R&D. Theories of technology and innovation will
also be briefly considered. We shall then analyse technology in the context of the tourism and
hospitality  industries  and  discuss  this  from  the  points  of  view  of  the  industrialised  and
developing economies. Methods of technology transfer will also be considered. Although the
focus  of  much  of  this  lesson  is  on  destinations  and  their  technological  advancement,  we
conclude by looking at the strategic implications from technology and innovation for tourism
and hospitality businesses.
After completing this lesson, you should be able to:
· Explain  the  role  that  technology  can  play  in  achieving  strategic  advantage  for
companies and destinations.
· Evaluate the role of technology in operational efficiency for international tourism and
hospitality businesses.
· Describe the national technological environment: innovation, research and
development, technology transfer.
· Assess the impact of new technologies, in particular, the Internet and e-commerce, on
the international tourism and hospitality industries.
PREPARATION
Complete the reading and video material before progressing on to the Learning section.
· Read chapter 12 of your textbook Morrison (2009) for an overview of innovation, and
research and development and their impact on international business.
· Read the article “Technology in tourism-from information communication technologies
to  eTourism  and  smart  tourism  towards  ambient  intelligence  tourism:  a  perspective
article”
https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/TR-06-2019-
0258/full/pdf?title=technology-in-tourism-from-information-communication-
technologies-to-etourism-and-smart-tourism-towards-ambient-intelligence-tourism-a-
perspective-article
· Read  chapter  4  of  your  textbook  Cooper  &  Hall  (2018),  concentrating  on  how
technological innovation is transforming tourism and hospitality marketing
· Watch  the  YouTube  video  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7zMNjraEMvY  to  gain
insight into ICT and the global environment.
· Visit  the  World  Bank  site  for  country  information  about  research  and  development
investment at a country level.
https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/GB.XPD.RSDV.GD.ZS

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
Revfine – Technology Trends in the Hospitality Industry
https://www.revfine.com/technology-trends-hospitality-industry/
Evolution of the Web https://flatworldbusiness.wordpress.com/digital-evolution/
Open source textbook – Competing in a global world
http://www.opentextbooks.org.hk/ditatopic/26788
TEDX – The Internet of Things https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mzy84Vb_Gxk