Representative democracy

Topic 1 : Representative democracy is an anachronism in the Web 2.0 world; the correct way to run a polity is by the use of electronic digitized technologies such as crowdsourcing. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Explain.

1.

I agree with this statement because one of the most critical issues in contemporary society is the electronic democracy or digital democracy that is observed in the current Web 2.0 wide . This democracy is highly complex and is popularly referred to as historical democracy that has different shapes and distinctive forms. Previously, in the 1990s, Information and Communication Technology or Information Technology was utilized in engaging the citizens to make political decisions. During that time former Web 1.0 was popularly observed. This was considered a one-way process and became highly popular as an approach. However, such an approach was not successful in enhancing the participation of the people in making political decisions. In recent years, democracy has been upgraded with the development of Web 2.0 that has resulted in the development of new dynamics and issues. 

Web 2.0 has become a two-way process where the citizens can participate and interact with each other seamlessly. Digitized Technology has resulted in a democracy which is characterized by the combination of the power of the internet and Technology in directing representative democracy when negative elements could be removed. Crowdsourcing is important because it ensures the achievement of the objectives through its support in developing and obtaining opinions from a large mass of individuals on the platform of the internet. Crowdsourcing is now the popular way of running policies via collaborative democracy. Technology has allowed many people to participate in political decisions and improved government outcomes. Technology has also provided people with opportunities for democracy where people can participate in different brainstorming sessions and also implement their discussions which political significance. It can be considered as an improvement or simplification of the entire system when citizen participation has increased remarkably.

2.

 
Electronic democracy, or democracy in the web 2.0 era, is difficult to describe because democracy has taken numerous forms throughout history. Earlier in the 1990s, information and communication technology (ICT) was utilized to involve individuals in political choices. Web 1.0 was popular at the time, and it relied on a “one-way process,” i.e. a top-down approach, which failed to boost people’s engagement.

The growth of web 2.0, on the other hand, has transformed the picture by introducing a new dynamic of “two-way process” that allows representatives and citizens to communicate with one another.

E-democracy is the result of the application of electronic digital technology. Positive components of direct and representative democracy emerge as a result of joint use of technology and the internet, while bad elements go away.

Crowd sourcing is a method of acquiring work, views, and information from a large number of individuals over the internet. It is a fresh and modern method for a polity to function, since it allows for “collaborative democracy,” in which individuals may enhance government outcomes via the use of technology. It opens up new possibilities for democracy by allowing individuals to join in discussions, generate ideas, and create and implement political choices. It leads to a bettering and simplicity of citizen involvement.

Reference:

The web 2.0 and its impact on relations between citizens and political representatives

3.

   Democracy in th recent times has seen a lot of changes with the ever growing technological advancement and this has completely change the perspective of representative democracy. Representative democracy is an anachronism in the Web 2.0 world as now with the changes in technology, everything has evolved into different scenario. But nowadays, there has been a critical issue in society which is electronic democracy also known as digital democracy as use of technology has altered the whole processing in some or the other way. I agree that representative democracy seems like an anachronism in the Web 2.0 world. 

             Nowadays with the use of electronic digitized technologies, systems are being operated and politics is being structured in a way with technical operations. Though this is a complex process as it involves dealing on a bigger level that to over a network. The use of technology and social media is very much evident through the example of the Obama campaign wherein it made international headlines for tapping into a wellspring of online contributions of about $742 million (Bell, J. 2009). Also, Open Source tools present transparency in government information and thus has enabled better results than the earlier one. 

             Being said that the correct way to run a polity is by the use of electronic digitized technologies such as crowdsourcing which is collection of information, opinion, or work from different people via internet. With this today, half of the battle is fought over the internet only wherein people get to know the position of candidates as well. Social technology can be interpreted as part of governmentality. It has helped in transforming about knowledge and ideas required for various governmental decisions. It can be understood that the rise of participation such as online platforms which has led to increase in social recognition. Crowdsourcing has helped in framing a new form of democracy through its reach and far sighted impact over people as well as governments.   

References 

Bell, J. (2009). Government transparency via open data and open sourceTechnology Innovation Management Review, 35-43.

O’Neil, M. (2010). Shirky and Sanger, or the costs of crowdsourcing. JCOM : Journal of Science Communication, 9(1). https://jcom.sissa.it/archive/09/01/Jcom0901(2010)C01/Jcom0901(2010)C04/Jcom0901(2010)C04.pdf

Topic 2: Power Overstretch

Give an example of “power overstretch”; what insights might we take from your example and what generalized hypotheses might you suggest?

1

I think the perfect example of “power overstretch” would be the invasion of Afghanistan by the United States. They invaded the country with ambiguous goals throughout the course of the 20 year war and left the country in shambles.  The only success from their invasion was that they were able to prevent and control  planned terrorist acts and in turn mitigate threat from the country.

One should wonder if they should have gone there at all:

·         No clear mission

·         Exit strategy did not exist

·         Left the country without a means to govern

The United States attempt to exercise power in the international system failed Afghanistan and produced international criticism questioning American’s intent. “In these 20 years, the propensity of the United States to prioritize short-term military gains over the creation of genuinely democratic institutions and the protection of human rights fatally undermined both the U.S. mission and the entire post-2001 State-building effort”.  Gossman, (2021).

As such United States involvement in Afghanistan has had catastrophic outcome on a humanitarian level for the Afghan people. This in turn may have long lasting effects on American power as they failed to meet their intent.

Filiz

Reference

 Gossman, P. (2021, July 06). How US-Funded Abuses Led to Failure in Afghanistan. Retrieved August 31, 2021, from https://www.hrw.org/news/2021/07/06/how-us-funded-abuses-led-failure-afghanistan

2.


One example of “power overstretch” Learn advance examination with Imartis learning. 

This term is surely used to imply a theory being accused has invalid speculations which expresses no impact or the same relationship among others. It does not have an inclusion for supposition of the course. The elective speculation could also be taken in case the invalid selection is rejected. 

For example, assume that you are attempting to use a certain type of education so as to discover on the off-chance upbringing inducing hypertension to an ordinary level after a duration of 24 hours when a certain dose is Taken. In order to realise the err on one side of the question, individual have to setup a speculation which is invalid. An example of such speculation he is: There is no adjustment on the level of hypertension in the patient even after 24 hours of measurement after taking the doors. This is an example of no cause because because it can be considered that the prescriptions can erase the blood pressure level to even higher rate. This would also become a significant outcome when it comes from the perspective of the patient. Nonetheless, it would have been lost in case I need a visual uses a directional universe Theory. For example, “no reduction in blood pressure after 24 hours two specific dosage given to the patient ” 

In the majority of the frameworks of life Science, it is important that individual users and non-directional speculation or an invalid speculation. Such speculation may be difficult to accomplish as compared to the factual speculations or assessments. The off-and-on charm can follow attest and cannot be reprimanded when the off chance is non-directional four uses non-directional Theory that also uses t-test. 

3.

Power Overstretch

When people have power, they will use it and expand it as much as possible. It is the desire of people to have unlimited rights. Everyone is in the pursuit of power, and the so-called success is to have more control. When a person has the capability of leadership, it is generally manifested in the following four points:

1, Issuing orders frequently.

2, Thinking that subordinates are not capable.

3, Not wanting to meet with colleagues.

4, All the achievements of associates should be attributed to their guidance.

Once people have power, they will use it frequently, and it will become more and more unfair, and the gap between their rights and those being managed will become broader and broader. For example, parents frequently interfere with their children and arrange what their children do regardless of their feelings. The adolescent rebellion of children is a power struggle. For example, sometimes there is no need for a person in the company, so if you are embarrassed to fire him directly, you will empty him in power and let him resign. When there is no power, only a position, people will feel not respected and have no status. 

In a word, when people have a certain amount of power, their legitimate rights and interests cannot be tolerated when they are damaged; when they have a lot of power, it will be unbearable to lose face, and it will lead to retaliation; when they have more power, sometimes they will do things that hurt others just because they are bored. Therefore, power itself tends to lead to corruption, while absolute power will lead to complete breakdown.