Political Violence

This is a 4,000 words essay writing. Please use UWE Harvard Referencing style, find the link below:

The essay must have a clear introduction, overall argument and conclusion. The essay should not simply summarise reading materials, but needs to incorporate your own analysis and argumentation. Your argument needs to be supported by examples and evidence.

The essay must be properly referenced, using University of West England Harvard Referencing style. Please find the link for the UWE referencing below

https://www.uwe.ac.uk/library/info/refbuilder/

Please you must use the Required readings below for this work.  There are additional resources below which must also be used as well as your independent research. On this essay details, you will find questions for discussions which is of great importance for this work. Please use the UK English for this work.

ESSAY QUESTION: ‘Violence itself participates in the definition of violence.’ (Coronil and Skurski, p.6 ) Discuss.

REQUIRED READINGS

1)Arendt, H. (1970) Excerpt from Part II. On Violence. London: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, pp. 43-56.

 

2) Mandela, N. (1964) An Ideal for Which I am Prepared to Die – Part I (Mandela’s Statement from the Dock at the Rivonia Trial, Pretoria, 20 April 1964). Guardian

 

3) Butler, J. (2020) Introduction. The Force of Nonviolence. London: Verso, 1-25.

 

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

Bernstein, R. J. (2013) Violence: Thinking without Banisters. Cambridge: Polity.

Coronil, F. and Skurski, J. (2006) States of Violence. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Della Porta, D. (1995) Social Movements, Political Violence and the State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Evans, B. and Carver, T. (2017) Histories of Violence: Post-war Critical Thought. London: Zed.

Galtung, J. (1969) Violence, Peace and Peace Research. Journal of Peace Research. 6 (3), pp. 167-191.

Ruggiero, V. (2006) Understanding Political Violence: A Criminological Approach. Maidenhead: Open University Press.

Tilly, C. (1985) War Making and State Making as Organized Crime. In: Evans, P., Rueschemeyer, D., and Skocpol, T., eds., Bringing the State Back In. Eds. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985), pp. 169-187.

Žižek, S. (2008) Violence: Six Sideways Reflections. London: Profile.

  • Arendt, H. (1970) On Violence. London: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Bernstein, R. J. (2013) Violence: Thinking without Banisters. Cambridge: Polity. [Especially Chapter 3 on Arendt]

Çubukçu, A. (2017) Thinking Against Humanity. London Review of International Law. 5 (2), pp. 251-267.

Evans, B. and Carver, T. (2017) Histories of Violence: Post-war Critical Thought. London: Zed. [Especially Chapter 3 on Arendt]

Frazer, E. and Hutchings, K. (2008) On Politics and Violence: Arendt Contra Fanon. Contemporary Political Theory. 7 (1), pp. 90-108.

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION

  • What are the different possible definitions of violence? What about ‘political’ violence?
  • What is the definition of ‘political violence’ that Fernando Coronil and Julie Skurski work with in their Introduction to States of Violence?
  • Why is the relationship between power and ‘violence’?
  • What is Butler’s criticism of ‘self-defence’ as justified violence?
  • What do Coronil and Skursi mean when they write: ‘the rhetoric of violence is thus inseparable from the violence of rhetoric’ (p. 6)?
  • When political activists and leaders contemplate the question of violence, they usually do so in terms of the congruence between means and ends. How do the texts you have read for this week theorise the instrumentality of violence? What are some of the justifications and critiques of violence they offer?
  • How does Arendt differentiate power, strength, force, authority, and violence? What are her respective definitions of these terms? Do they make sense to you?
  • What is the distinction that Nelson Mandela makes between terrorism and the type of violence that Umkhonto we Sizwe (Spear of the Nation) resorted to? Do you agree with this difference?
  • How does Nelson Mandela’s explanation of the movement’s recourse to violence as “responsible leadership” compare to Arendt’s view that ‘power and violence are opposites’?

·         TOPICS COVERED

  • WHAT IS POLITICAL VIOLENCE?
  • Introduction to the module: its scope, framework, general aims, and central concerns
  • Definitions of violence and nonviolence
  • An overview of the vocabulary for contextualising individual acts of violence within broader structures of violence: subjective/objective violence, systemic violence, symbolic violence, epistemic violence, slow violence
  • Introduction to critical thinking on relations between state power, law and violence, and on official discourses around political violence and terrorism

            CRITICAL DEBATES: VIOLENCE AS INSTRUMENT?

·             TOPICS COVERED

  • The instrumentality of violence: the question of means and ends
  • Introduction to the thought of Hannah Arendt on violence and politics
  • Arendt’s definitions of power, strength, force, authority, violence, terror – do they make sense?
  • Through the lens of the anti-apartheid movement in South Africa: considering violence as political strategy

CRITICAL PERSPECTIVES: COLONIALISM & VIOLENCE

·         TOPICS COVERED

  • Introduction to the thought and influence of Frantz Fanon on the question of violence
  • Fanon’s analysis of colonialism and decolonization
  • The possibilities and limits of non-violent action

       CRITICAL PERSPECTIVES: LAW & VIOLENCE

·                 TOPICS COVERED

  • Introduction to the thought of Walter Benjamin on violence
  • The relationship between law and violence: law-positing and law-preserving violence
  • The question of legal violence

          DEFINING TERRORISM

·         TOPICS COVERED

  • The stakes of defining terrorism
  • The workings of ‘terrorism discourse’
  • The rise of ‘terrorism studies’ as a discipline, its limits, and its effects on law and policy

          The critique of ‘clash of civilizations’ WAR & TERRORISM

·         TOPICS COVERED

  • The distinctions between war and terrorism in contemporary public discourse
  • Talal Asad’s thinking on the continuities and co-implications between war and terrorism
  • Asad’s theorisation of ‘forms of death-dealing’ and their ‘moral packaging’
  • Judith Butler on the hegemonic frame for understanding violence in the immediate aftermath of 9/11
  • Quandaries of legally defining terrorism as opposed to acts in war: the example of R v. Gul (2013)

             POLICING TERROR I: MIMETIC VIOLENCE

·         TOPICS COVERED

  • The involvement of state institutions and agents in ‘unsanctioned’ political violence
  • Counterterrorism and imitative violence
  • Producing terrorism through policing: sting operations and the use of informants

      POLICING TERROR: SUSPECT COMMUNITIES

·         TOPICS COVERED

  • The social life of counter-terrorism measures
  • Anti-terror laws, policing of terrorism, and the creation ‘suspect communities’
  • How counter-terrorism measures combine with discourses of nationalism and social identities
  • Policing terrorism through notions of ‘risk’
  • Theories of radicalisation and the example of PREVENT in the UK

      THE LEGAL LANDSCAPE OF THE WAR ON TERROR

·         TOPICS COVERED

  • The expansion of state power under anti-terror laws
  • The post-9/11 debates around the notion of emergency powers and the ‘state of exception’
  • The concept of ‘hyperlegality’
  • The relationship between administrative determinations and legal violence
  • The role that law plays, and the shape that it takes in the war on terror