1.What is the difference between lower and higher psychological functions? What are the purposes of higher psychological functions? According to Vygotsky, how do children develop higher psychological functions? Give one example of a higher psychological function. 2.What is the zone of proximal development? What does this concept say about the character of human development and its relation to teaching and learning? Discuss Vygotsky’s and Piaget’s differing views on the relation between learning and development. 3. In light of Vygotsky’s developmental theory, discuss Gal’perin’s approach (systemic-theoretical instruction), especially his elementary math program. Specifically, explain; (1) Describe how children learned the concept of number in Gal’perin’s approach. What was the sequence of steps for mastering the meaning and function of numbers? (2) In what way did Gal’perin’s approach help children grasp the principle of conservation of quantities, even though they were not directly taught about conservation? (3) Based on the results of the performance of children in Gal’perin’s approach on conservation tests, explain why his type of instruction (systemic-theoretical) goes against Piaget’s assumptions that logico-mathematical thinking develops spontaneously and does not benefit from social transmission. (4) In what way does Gal’perin’s approach apply the concept of the zone of proximal development to teach elementary math? Put it another way, how does systemic-theoretical teaching-learning lead to developmental changes (i.e., development of mental processes and functions)? (5) Explain how Gal’perin’s approach avoids stark opposition between transmission of knowledge (i.e., presenting ready-made knowledge)versus spontaneous discovery of knowledge (i.e., leaving children to learn on their own)?