Discuss how some authors have critically established that objectivity, certainty, and individualistic knowledge are simplified and problematic conceptions regarding the production of scientific and casual knowledge

Essay: Font 12, 1.5 spacing with normal margins & work should not be less than 3 pages or more than 5. Must state references at the end. 

 

 

 

INSTRUCTIONS FOR ESSAY : 

DISCUSS HOW SOME AUTHORS HAVE CRITICALLY ESTABLISHED THAT OBJECTIVITY, CERTAINTY (OR “ABSOLUTE TRUTH”) AND INDIVIDUALISTIC KNOWLEDGE ARE SIMPLIFIED AND PROBLEMATIC CONCEPTIONS REGARDING THE PRODUCTION OF SCIENTIFIC AND CASUAL KNOWLEDGE. TAKE INTO CONSIDERATION WHY THIS DISCUSSION IS IMPORTANT IN THE REALM OF PSYCHOLOGY AND HOW IT OPENS UP NEW AND COMPLEX WAYS OF UNDERSTANDING HUMAN ACTIONS. 

 

* When elaborating your essay take into account the following1) There’s three (3) conceptions that need to be critically examined (objectivity, certainty and individualistic knowledge), BUT you can decide to focus on one more than the others (since, as you will notice, the three are inter-related). 2) When discussing the case of Psychology, which is mostly discussed in Glasersfeld’s and Gergen’s text, try to elaborate at least one example (either inspired by the texts or one of the many that appear in said texts) that show the importance of constructivism (or knowledge as a construction), subjectivity, language-games or, among other things, a psychology that takes into consideration the diversity of human experience. 3) You have to make use of at least three (3) of the assigned texts.

 

*DO NOT USE INTERNET SOURCES & LIMIT YOURSELF TO THE ASSIGNED TEXTS: 

 

1)Chalmers, A.F. (1999). Deriving theories from the facts: induction. In Alan F. Chalmers, What is this thing called science? (41-58). Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc. 2

 

2)Creswell, J. W. (2007). Philosophical, Paradigm, and Interpretive Frameworks. In John W. Creswell, Qualitative, Inquiry & Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches (15-34). London: Sage Publications.

 

3)Gergen, K. (2001). Psychological Science in Postmodern Context. American Psychologist 56 (10), 803-815.

 

4)Glasersfeld, E.V. (1996). Farewell to Objectivity. Systems Research 13 (3): 279-286. Hergenhahn, B.R. & Henley, T.B. (2014). Introduction. In B.R.

 

5)Hergenhahn & Tracy B. Henley, An Introduction to the History of Psychology (6-26). Belmont: Wadsworth.

* I CAN PROVIDE THESE TEXTS BY EMAIL IF YOU CANNOT FIND THEM YOURSELF. 

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