ATS2456 Cybercrime Annotated Blibliography

ATS2456 Cybercrime

Annotate Bibliography

Selected Essay Question:

The COVIDSafe app is a tool that helps identify people exposed to coronavirus (COVID-19). This helps us support and protect you, your friends and family. (from Department of Health website).


McBratney , M., & Weedon, E. (2011). Internet Law Bulletin. Hacking and Privacy — an Australian Perspective, 135–138.[A1] 


This article indicates that the Internet hacking problem is getting worse in Australia and the laws protecting Australia citizens’ privacy are totally insufficient. Internet hacking are happening all over the world currently, and the media reported that hackers had successfully started their attack against the global organizations like Telstra, Sony and even the CIA. The focus of the study is that there are no statutory right to privacy in Australia and the laws deal with the practise of hacking are performing practically no function. Although there are different laws like privacy legislation, Telco law and Criminal law in Australia[A2] , the nature of those laws are cryptic and burdensome[A3] , penalty are not enough to serve as deterrent to the hackers. Besides, it is not easy for the law enforcement officials to track and identify the hackers within a short period of time before the damage had been done on the victims as they are usually anonymous. The study [A4] concluded that the loophole of the laws in Australia [A5] are leaving personal information of citizens open to attack, suggested solution to the government and general public on how to execute the problems. This article is of importance as it emphasizes the recent situation of the Australians’ privacy protection by the govenment is unsatisfactory and it directly affects the confidence of their own privacy and also the privacy problem of using COVIDSafe application.


Weitzner, D. (2020). What Are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Contact Tracing Apps? [A6] 


This article points out that the function and usefulness of contact tracing in the area of public health especially for COVID-19. Contact tracing applications can assist to interrupt the transmission chains and also inquiry the reason of the spreading diseases. It focus on the importance of a private-friendly application, using a decentralized server and Bluetooth for the contact tracing application. It is important to protect citizens privacy through focusing on users’ proximity instead of the users’ exact location, design flexibility, rapid notification and integration in order to maximize the benefits of government officials, easier for them to trace where did the patients stay and meet in the past 21 days after the confirmation of COVID-19 infection. It also indicates that contact tracing application can boost the speed and scope of the COVID-19 patients tracing scale comparing to the traditional tracing way. The interview compare the app[A7] , PACT from their team to other applications, magnify their unique strength and the limitations of others. This article is useful as it clearly tell that the main considerations of designing the contact tracing app and the way of gaining the public trust, cooperate with NGOs that concern mostly with privacy. It is useful to evaluate the safety and privacy problem of the contact tracing app to decide whether should we download the contact tracing application.


Cakrabartī, P. (2020). Contact tracing in post-Covid world : a cryptologic approach (1st ed. 2020.).


This Indian study examine the method of limiting the spread of COVID-19 in the world, moving from manual contact tracing to digital systems like mobile phone network and software systems. The focus of the research is the privacy and security issues of different people concerning as different countries are using their own method to this issue. Although the data transfer between the smartphone and the database are usually handled by the governmental authorities, there are also many flaws and it is the main reason why people concern their privacy would be violate by others like hackers. Cryptology is the solution of this problem, many countries will be using cryptology as the fundamental science behind the contact tracing applications software (COVIDSafe, Bluetrace, Opentrace). This study compare the advantages and disadvantages of the traditional manual contact tracing and the digital systems[A8] . It indicates that the challenge led by the traditional method cannot be solved by the digital and automated contact tracing protocols but due to the rapid development of technology, it is unavoidable that people has to rely on the newest technology when it can bring us good things that the traditional method cannot do. This research is important because it has a in-depth study in the COVIDSafe application, discussing its framework, design principles, protocol implementation details and the system analysis, comparing it to other similar application, pointing out the positive and negative effect of the newest tracing application.

 [A1]Doi required if you don’t have issue/no.

 [A2]Best to reference specific legislation

 [A3]How so?

 [A4]You did not provide enough information on how the research itself was conducted

 [A5]Need to be specific about which law

 [A6]Incorrect citation format

 [A7]Needed to be primary peer-reviewed research

 [A8]This is a better description – you needed to focus on this more