Annotated Bibliography- Part 2

Lepinteur, A. (2019). The shorter workweek and worker well-being: Evidence from Portugal and France. Labour Economics58, 204-220.

The reading focuses on the impact of a shorter workweek in nations such as Portugal and France and its impact on the overall performance of the employees. Through the reading, it is evident that a shorter workweek can increase job satisfaction while improving overall outcomes. It is evident from the reading that a shorter workweek can positively affect the well-being of the employee (Lepinteur, 2019). Employees will be more productive in the situation where they can get a flexible work schedule. The employees will also become more motivated to enhance their work efficiency and also integrate productivity in their work-related practices. Nations such as Portugal and France will experience greater employee happiness and job satisfaction because of the implementation of a shorter workweek. A shorter workweek for the employees is largely beneficial because it will reduce incidences of sick leave in the workplace.

Many professionals will prefer flexibility in work, and a shorter workweek helps such employees to realize work fulfillment. Such organizations will offer flexible solutions for their workers, allowing the employees more flexibility as they work. However, only a few organizations have managed to adopt a new model of work where the employees a new model which allows autonomy for the employees in the work setting (Lepinteur, 2019). Employee well-being has become an issue of concern in the workplace, and employers have to consider the rising stress levels of the workers. Stress has a major impact on the employee and can lead to common occurrences of sick leave and cause employee turnover. It can also lead to a loss in productivity and increased costs to the organization in terms of expenses.

Long hours at work can have a stressful impact on the workers and can lead to bad outcomes (Mukhtar, 2012). Work satisfaction plays an important role in ensuring that employees are productive in the organization. In this situation, it is evident that job satisfaction will be significantly higher with the implementation of a shorter workweek. It is important for organizations to pay attention to the attitudes of employees, and a satisfied workforce will lead to worse outcomes for the employees (Lepinteur, 2019). Organizations need to create a balance between the employees’ work and personal life, especially if the organization aims to retain talent. Employees will usually benefit from an environment where there is increased autonomy, which will help them achieve their work objectives. A shorter workweek will result in happier and healthier employees, and this will be overall beneficial for the organization.

Employee well-being will usually consist of physical as well as mental well-being. Physical well-being includes different areas such as the maintenance of one’s health by partaking in exercise and diet (Haar et al., 2014). Workers who are healthy are an important aspect of organizational success because they can guarantee the realization of organizational goals since they can work in an efficient manner (Lepinteur, 2019). Mental well-being will usually occur when the employee realizes his or her potential and is able to maintain a mental balance in living, therefore working in a productive manner while realizing work objectives. The implementation of a shorter workweek in Portugal and France has been largely beneficial to organizations in these countries. This is because organizations have been able to maintain employee satisfaction and wellness, therefore, leading to better organizational outcomes.

White, M., Hill, S., McGovern, P., Mills, C., & Smeaton, D. (2003). ‘High‐performance management practices, working hours and work–life balance. British journal of industrial Relations41(2), 175-195.

The reading focuses on the effect of extreme human resources measures in the workplace, hours at work, and the balance between work and life (Mukhtar, 2012). It is evident that long work hours can lead to an imbalance in the work-life balance. Intense work schedules in the organizational setting can have a negative outcome on the employee. It scrutinizes certain aspects of high-performance management as human resource practices.

Employers will adopt these practices for better job output of the workers (White et al., 2003). However, these repercussions will have repercussions that go far beyond the workplace. Employees will find themselves involved in intense work schedules to fulfill their obligations and live the life they would want. However, intense work schedules will negatively affect the personal lives of employees. If organizations adopt high-performance practices, they should also implement a balance work schedule for the employees. This would give the employees to adapt work demands as well as out of work rest.

Additional work hours ill usually lead to less free time when at home, and this may result in fatigue or anxiety in the employees. Negative spillover can be solved when there are measures in place to give the employees a workable schedule. It can include placing systems of flexible work hours and giving individuals control over their working hours (White et al., 2003).

 Financial pressure will lead to longer working hours, and this has a negative impact on the domestic life of the employee. Work-life balance for employees includes balancing working time and free time, and in high-performance management practices, this will be largely affected. High working hours and overtime will lead to lower job satisfaction for the employees. It is evident that employees will have a negative attitude towards work if the working hours are extended in order to meet the organizational goals. Furthermore, there are clear connections between prolonged working hours, well-being, and employee productivity.

Excessive working hours can lead to health-related issues such as depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbances. Using excessive amounts of energy at work can result in physical reactions such as fatigue in an individual (Morganson et al., 2010). It is important to maintain a work-life balance for the employees because detachment from work acts as a moderator for the employees and therefore enhances their productivity during working hours. It also helps to reduce occurrences of employee burnout which would be detrimental to the employee and also to the organization. All these will also play a major role in reducing employee job satisfaction which is also costly to the organization in the long term (White et al., 2003). High-performance practices in the organization will lead to work pressure for the employee, which negatively impacts employee well-being. In such a situation, the employees will be prone to stressful workloads and increased hours at work. There is a link between lengthy work schedules and dissatisfaction of the employees. It will also interfere with employees’ family life, therefore increasing the stress and frustration of the employee.

Employee dissatisfaction can be reduced by giving the employees more opportunities to control their work time. It will assist the employees in combining their work and family goals leading to better outcomes. Organizations need to place regulations that can help to reduce working hours or help to give the employees a flexible schedule. It can also include the use of telecommunicating, therefore ensuring flexibility for the employees in work-related practices (White et al., 2003).

The introduction of intense work programs would have an effect on the employee work arrangements. It would lead to drastic measures such as increased work time as well as more intense work-related processes. This would largely affect the wellness of the employee, which would be detrimental to the employee at a physical and mental level. It is necessary to develop the necessary measures to ensure better work practices, as this will impact employee wellness. It is necessary to create a work environment that is conducive for the workers as this will ensure that they can maximize worktime leading to better overall outputs.

                                                References (Additional)

Haar, J. M., Russo, M., Suñe, A., & Ollier-Malaterre, A. (2014). Outcomes of work–life balance on job satisfaction, life satisfaction and mental health: A study across seven cultures. Journal of Vocational Behavior85(3), 361-373.

Morganson, V. J., Major, D. A., Oborn, K. L., Verive, J. M., & Heelan, M. P. (2010). Comparing telework locations and traditional work arrangements: Differences in work‐life balance support, job satisfaction, and inclusion. Journal of Managerial Psychology.

Mukhtar, F. (2012). Work life balance and job satisfaction among faculty at Iowa State University.