Environmental Planning Models by Hostovsky

Hostovsky’s models of environmental planning include the rational comprehensive model (RCM), the advocacy model, the adaptive model, the participatory model, and the incremental model (Hostovsky, 2000). RCM is mainly used in waste planning because it is the most common model used by planners to optimize the location of facilities (Hostovsky, 2006). The participatory model involves the participation of the public unlike in the RCM model, which involves the participation of the planner alone.

The public participation makes the model time consuming and tiresome because of the need for discussions, negotiations, and mediation (Hostovsky, 2000). For instance, in this method, the community that is willing to provide a location for a disposal facility is awarded the development money.

The advocacy model’s main tenet is that planning should be conducted while taking into consideration the values and goals of the client. Examples of values considered include political leadership, social equity, and public relations.

The advocacy and the participatory model both take into consideration the welfare of the public. The incremental model’s main focus is on the resolution of crises that emanate from poor planning and the disintegration of environmental regulations (Hostovsky, 2000). In many cases, the model is applied after crises emerge due to poor implementation of environmental policies. The application of the model results in new attitudes and approaches.

Finally, the adaptive model relies on projections and utilizes techniques, such as mathematical modeling achieve desired outcomes (Hostovsky, 2000). Unlike other methods, this model uses different types of decision making and evaluation approaches to achieve planning goals. All the aforementioned models are similar because they all aim to attain one goal namely environmental planning. Even though they utilize different techniques and approaches, their objective is the same.


Hostovsky, C. (2000). Integrating Planning Theory and Waste Management: An Annotated Bibliography. Journal of Planning Literature, 15(2), 305-332.

Hostovsky, C. (2006). The Paradox of the Rational Comprehensive Model of Planning: Tales from Waste Management Planning in Ontario, Canada. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 25(4), 382-395.