UCLA Evolutionary Biology Mutations & New Beneficial Dominant Allele Discussion

I’m working on a biology question and need an explanation to help me study. 1) A mutation produces a new beneficial dominant allele. Which of the following statements is false when considering the rate of freq. change that will be observed for this allele in the population -alelle will initially be present in heterozygotes -it is less likely to reach a freq. of 1. than if it had been recessive -its freq will increase slowly until homozygotes occur in the population -individuals with this allele will express favorable phenotype 2)Which of the following is not an exampleof a component of fitness -number of eggs a female can produce -how long you live past reproductive age -number of females a male mammal mates with in a breeding season -ability of a sperm to successfully fertilize an egg 3)Which of the following is not associated with Darwins theory of evolution -individuals in a population vary phenotypically -more organisms are produced than can survive -there are limited resources for which individuals compete -all variations possessed by individuals of a population are inherited 4) What type of selection leads to the fixation of an advantageous allele -positive -overdominant -underdominant -all above 5) Which of the following is true when considering linkage disequilibrium A-it decreases as recombination rate increases B-it measure associations among alleles at different loci C-it cannot cause an allele at a neutral locus to change in frequency a and B a,b,c 6) Which is false when considering a populations mean fitness(w) -natural selection causes populations to evolve so that they become better adapted to their enviornment -the average survival and reproduction of the population members increases over time -fitness gains made by selection are continuously undermined by environments that change in space and time -none of the above are false 7)What type of selection would decrease phenotypic variation in a trait but the mean of the trait would not change -stabilizing -directional -disruptive -positive 8)Newborn mortality in the colony tends to be 5-10%. A series of genetic crosses suggests that the deaths in the newborns is due to a lethal recessive allele. What is the reasonable explanation for the persistence of this allele in the colony? -homozygous recessive mice have a reproductive advantage -the lethal allele reoccurs each generation due to a high mutation rate -recessive allele cannot be selected against when it is in the heterozygote -there is no dominance in heterozygotes 9) Which is NOT a misconception or misguided inference about evolution? -evolution can prepare an organism for a future event that can impact its fitness – a phenotype cannot solely be the product of physics or chemistry -all aspects of an organism are the outcome of nonrandom process( ie natural selection) -natural selection is constrained by past evolutionary events

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