I’m working on a psychology question and need an explanation to help me study. DQ#1 Diversity and Social Justice **Josseline R** Three concepts about diversity and social justice that this writer thinks are most important to the whole group are multicultural integration, empowerment, and social justice advocacy. Multicultural integration involves the group leader recognizing the cultural elements of each group member while helping each member see the uniqueness that every other member contributes to the group (Berg, Fall, and Landreth, 2013). This writer believes that multicultural integration is important in group therapy because there in groups, there will be people from different backgrounds with different cultures so inclusivity is major. Empowerment involves the group leaders building on the energy of the previous stages and help create an atmosphere that promotes self-advocacy (Berg et al., 2013). When group members find their voice, they begin to gain confidence and the skills needed to become self-sufficient members of society (Berg et al., 2013). This writer believes that empowerment is important for group members so that they can evolve and become self-advocates (Berg et al., 2013). Lastly, social justice advocacy involves expanding into the larger community to advocacy for larger change (Berg et al., 2013). This intertwines with empowerment because the group members can gain self-advocacy and learn that the change can grow and impact others in the community or society as a whole (Berg et al., 2013). This writer believes that social-justice advocacy is important because the therapist can educate others on social justice which leads to people going out into the community. This writer does believe that social justice advocacy is important but will talk about it when appropriate. According to the American Counseling Association (2014) counselors should avoid imposing their own values, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. This writer would not impose her values so that this writer does not influence the group. Counselors should provide treatment to culturally diverse populations. Counselors should recognize that culture affects the manner in which clients’ problems are defined and experienced but should not discriminate based on culture or any other factors (ACA, 2014). References American Counseling Association (2014). ACA Code of Ethics. Alexandria, VA: Author. Berg, R. C., Fall, K. A., & Landreth, G. L. (2013). _Group Counseling : Concepts and Procedures: Vol. 5th ed_. Routledge. **Kiana M** This writer feels that the three concepts most important for group therapy are Multicultural Integration, Social-Justice Advocacy and Gain a Comprehensive Understanding of Your Own Culture and How It Impacts Your View of Others and, In Turn, How It Impacts Your View of Your Group Members. Multicultural Integration is when the health professional understands the cultural differences that each member of the group brings with them and how those differences can be experienced for group members (Berg, Landreth & Fall, 2013). Health professionals assist group members with understanding the unique individuality that each member can bring to the group and how they can learn from each other. Health professionals should try to facilitate conversations that naturally incorporate each group member’s cultural identity and differences (Berg, Landreth & Fall, 2013). For the benefit of the group, some conversations might need to focus solely on cultural differences within the group, where health professionals should ask group members if they can recognize the differences within the group and question the power that the group has the potential of holding within itself (AGPA, 2013: Berg, Landreth & Fall, 2013). While health professionals are respecting and exploring each group member’s identity and culture and are assisting them with respecting and exploring each other, the health professional should also be aware of their own culture and how they can be a part of the matrix (Berg, Landreth & Fall, 2013). When health professionals are able to be self-aware, they can open up the conversation to more collaborativeness between everyone, which can promote a sense of power within the group and for each member of the group (Berg, Landreth & Fall, 2013). Sometimes when health professionals are aware of cultural differences, but they don’t discuss them in groups, this can make the other members feel uncomfortable discussing the topic (Berg, Landreth & Fall, 2013). This writer feels that an important aspect of Multicultural Integration is the health professional having the difficult, but open discussion about each group member’s individual culture and how their culture can impact them in their daily life (Berg, Landreth & Fall, 2013). The discussion can help the group members feel comfortable with discussions about issues that they might have experienced in life and how they have affected them (Berg, Landreth & Fall, 2013). The group members can learn from each other, how other cultures can impact individual people and perhaps how people from the same culture can be impacted differently (Berg, Landreth & Fall, 2013). When a health professional has a difficult discussion, such as about cultural differences and how these cultural differences can impact individuals, the health professional should always make sure that each member feels valued, comfortable and safe to discuss their feelings openly (Berg, Landreth & Fall, 2013). Health professionals should understand that even though cultural differences and their effects can be a difficult discussion, ignoring cultural differences could potentially make a group member feel as if a part of their identity is being ignored and taken away from them (AGPA, 2013). Social-Justice Advocacy is when health professionals assist group members with expanding their knowledge and awareness about culture, and social justice knowledge that they have gained within the group and learning how to advocate in the larger community for a positive change (Berg, Landreth & Fall, 2013). Group members typically gain a sense of Social-Justice Advocacy when they have experienced personal change within themselves and utilize the knowledge that they have gained by practicing their acknowledged personal change within the group (Berg, Landreth & Fall, 2013). Once group members have achieved personal change and insightful knowledge about Social-Justice, some members might feel a growing need to share their knowledge and experience with a larger community to help promote a positive change for the community and the individuals who reside in the community (Berg, Landreth & Fall, 2013). Some group members might feel that once they have grown within the group, the next step for them in their personal growth is to use the knowledge that they have gained to help others and work for a cause greater than their own (Berg, Landreth & Fall, 2013). An important issue for health professionals to be cautious of is that not every group member will want to advocate for Social-Justice and it’s important for health professionals to be aware of this, so that they don’t unintentionally push the need for avocation onto group members and make them feel uncomfortable (Berg, Landreth & Fall, 2013). Health professionals should have a discussion about advocating for Social-Justice, but only if the group is appropriate for the discussion and as long as all of the members feel comfortable with the convocation of advocating for Social-Justice outside of the group setting (Berg, Landreth & Fall, 2013). Otherwise, if only some members are open and comfortable with the idea, then health professionals may still have a conversation with them before or after the group. This way, health professionals are respecting the feelings of the other group members who may be uncomfortable with the idea (Berg, Landreth & Fall, 2013). Health professionals should make sure that they are self-aware and are not pushing their own personal values onto group members to advocate for something that they might not have wanted to in the beginning, but felt that they had to because their health professional felt so strongly about the idea and kept pushing for it during group sessions (Berg, Landreth & Fall, 2013). Gain a Comprehensive Understanding of Your Own Culture and How It Impacts Your View of Others and, In Turn, How It Impacts Your View of Your Group Members is when health professionals have a deeper understanding of themselves and are self-aware of their beliefs and values (Berg, Landreth & Fall, 2013). Health professionals with a sense of self-awareness are able to understand how their personal beliefs and values can intersect on a macro level, such as the larger community around them and on a micro level, such as the groups that they facilitate (Berg, Landreth & Fall, 2013). Health professionals with a sense of self-awareness are able to understand how diversity and social injustice can greatly impact their group and the way that their group functions (Berg, Landreth & Fall, 2013). Health professionals should make sure that they are comfortable with discussing the issues of diversity and social injustice, since any uneasiness can reflect onto their group members, potentially making them feel uncomfortable with discussing the topic (Berg, Landreth & Fall, 2013). Health professionals should be comfortable with the knowledge that having discussions about diversity and social injustice opens up a difference of opinions and perceptions, which may result in conflict (Berg, Landreth & Fall, 2013). This writer feels that they still need to explore their own personal values and beliefs in order to gain a deeper understanding of self-awareness and prevent projecting themselves onto their group members. One of the things that this writer has worked hard on is remembering that everyone is different, and if this writer doesn’t agree with something, they should still also respect the other person’s beliefs, values, opinions and thoughts on a topic. One thing that this writer learned from this week’s reading is that they are not fully comfortable with talking about cultural differences. This writer is only uncomfortable with talking about cultural differences because they don’t know much about different cultures themselves and this writer is self-aware enough to understand that they will try to avoid conversations that they know conflict will emerge from. This writer can see how their discomfort with discussing cultural differences could potentially make group members feel uncomfortable and not want to open up or talk about and explore the topic at all. This is definitely an area that this writer knows they need to educate themselves on more. This writer feels that health professionals should provide treatment to a culturally diverse population. Health professionals who purposely do not provide treatment to a diverse population would be unethical and going against the code of ethics that states health professionals should gain knowledge, self-awareness, sensitivity and any skills that they need to be culturally competent when they are working with a diverse population (ACA, C.2. 2014). This means that when health professionals ignore a diverse population because they are unwilling to work with them, or they do not feel skilled enough to effectively assist them, then the health professionals are being unethical because they are not taking the time and steps to improve their education and knowledge in the area to better serve the group members. If a health professional has a group of diverse members, then the health professional can’t just refer the group members out to a different health professional because the diverse group members went against the health professional’s personal beliefs, values and attitudes (ACA, A.11.b, 2014). If a health professional did refer a group of diverse members out for this reason, it would be unethical and go against the code of ethics, which states that health professionals need to respect the diversity of any client and the health professionals should seek out training if they are at risk of imposing their own personal beliefs and values onto group members (ACA, A.11.b, 2014). **** References: **** American Counseling Association. (2014). _2014 ACA code of ethics._https://www.counseling.org/resources/aca-code-of-ethics.pdf **** American Group Psychotherapy Association – AGPA. (2013, April 12). Cultural Competence in Group Therapy – AGPA Racial & Ethnic Diversity SIG. _YouTube._https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LuCaTJt7N78 Berg, R., Landreth, G. L., & Fall, K. A. (2013). Group counseling: Concepts and procedures. _New York: Routledge_ _DQ#2 Theory_ **Darren E** Hello class and Professor On this assignment the two theories that the writer will consider using in his career will be the Person-Centered theory, because this theory allows the members to follow in the direction that the group atmosphere will go, being influenced by the counselor but not being controlled by the counselor. The counselor should always show a certain level of care during the group sessions to help keep the members to stay motivated in their recovery and help them to begin to believe in themselves and other members of the group working together as a team. Berg, Fall, & Landreth, (2013, p.), states that Carl Rogers, person-centered group therapy can be labelled by the aura of the group as influenced by the counselor. The counselor must be congruent and show the root which are the foundation conditions of empathy, unique, and positive reinforcement toward all group members. If the counselor can recognizes the group within the three conditions, a atmosphere of growth will be developed and will enable the members to reach their own potentials. Person-Centered Theory gives the power of the group session and the direction the session is going to the members of the group, instead of the group being dictated on how to think or behave during and after the group. One of the positive qualities that this theory will help this writer to develop, is to care about each member in the group. This will gain a level of rapport with the members and have them to believe that somebody care about them. According to Ackerman, (2020) person-centered theory is a non- directive form of talk therapy, meaning that it will allow the clients to control the conversation with the counselor not trying to direct the conversation in anyway. This approach rests on one important quality; non-stop positive regard. This means the counselor refrains from judging the members no matter what. Providing a source of complete acceptance and support (Cherry, 2007). According to Hoffman, (2020) states that early interaction with family members, peers and adults help to determine the role of inferiority and superiority in life. Adler belived that birth order had a significant and predictable impact on people personality, and their feelings of inferiority. All human behavior is goal oriented and motivated by striving for superiority, individuals differ in their goals and how they try to achieve their goals. The natural reaction is compensation developing their own abilities. If a person is unable to compensate for normal feelings of inferiority, they develop an inferiority complex. The overarching goal of Adlerian psychotherapy is to help the group to overcome feelings of inferiority. The other theory that the writer will consider using in his career when providing group therapy sessions is the Adlerian theory. This theory focuses on allowing the members of the group to become social with each other because of the communication will be their strength and healing process. This is another theory that will give the members of the group the control over their healing process while growing a relationship with each other that will help them to support each other. Berg, Fall, & Landreth, (2013, p. 23) states that adlerian approach focuses on each member as a holistic, talkative being, whose every action has a purpose. The counselor can observe each member’s behavior to be able to get a clearer understanding of the behavior. From an Adlerian perspective, the group acts as a social lab, because all change occurs in a social context, the group is a perfect place to encourage behavior change. These two theories can work together simultaneously, because they help the members of the group to realize they have control over their process, only needing the counselor to bring out the solutions they had inside the entire time, because the members did not believe they had the solution to their problems. These two theories helps the group to understand themselves so they can change their behavior. According to Watts, (2014). Adlerian theory asserts that human construct, manufacturer, or narratize ways of viewing and experiencing the world. It is an optimistic, positive psychological theory affirming that humans are not determined by heredity and environment. Rather, they are creative, proactive, meaning- making beings, with the ability to choose and to be responsible for their choices. References: Ackerman, C. (2020). 10 Person-Centered therapy techniques inspired by Carl Rogers [+PDF]. www.positivepsychology.com Berg, C., Fall, A., & Landreth, L. (2013). _Group Counseling: Concepts and Procedures: Vol. 5th ed_. Routledge. Hoffman, R. (2020). Alfred Adler’s theories of individual psychology and Adlerian therapy https://www.simplypsychology.org Watts, R. (2014). Adlerian brief counseling techniques. Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy (9th ed.) www.alfredadler.ed **Josseline R** Theories serve as priceless roadmaps to change in counseling, in a group counseling setting, theories are more useful due to the complexity of having multiple clients and having to process any given interaction (Berg, Fall, and Landreth, 2013). Two theories that this writer sees herself using as a group leader are a person-centered theory and Adlerian theory. A person-centered approach involves a counselor being congruent and showing empathy, genuineness, and unconditional positive regard towards the group members (Berg et al., 2013). A group leader should establish these conditions so that the group members can reach their own potential (Berg et al., 2013). The group leader and members provide the interaction, motivation, and direction of the group, but the focus is placed on the client (Berg et al., 2013). So, the group leader must be actively listening and continuously connected with the group and self so that the climate of growth can be maintained (Berg et al., 2013). This writer likes this approach in a group therapy session because of the three conditions. This writer believes that empathy, genuineness, and unconditional positive regard are important to building a therapeutic relationship and can help others feel comfortable and safe in a group setting. A limitation that this writer can see is that since this theory is more passive, the group members are intended to talk a lot but they may be hesitant in engaging to expressing their feelings to a group. The Adlerian theory focuses on each member as a holistic and creative being whose every action has a purpose (Berg et al., 2013). The group leader will focus on interactions in the group and monitor each group member’s behavior to get a clear picture of the purposes of the behavior (Berg et al., 2013). According to the Adlerian perspective, a group acts as a social laboratory and benefits from therapy since behavioral change can be encouraged (Berg et al., 2013). The Adlerian theory follows four stages: (1) establishing a relationship, (2) analysis, (3) insight, and (4) reorientation (Berg et al., 2013). This writer likes this approach because group leaders can be free and spontaneous on their level of interaction with the group which can make the sessions better for the group members (Berg et al., 2013). A limitation that this writer can see is that if some behaviors are called out, group members could feel offended or singled out. Referneces Berg, R. C., Fall, K. A., & Landreth, G. L. (2013). _Group Counseling : Concepts and Procedures: Vol. 5th ed_. Routledge. DQ#3 Introductions **Darren E** Hello class and Professor My name is Darren Eddings, I want to better understand group therapy so I can sharpen my experience, and better help those I serve. I worked at Camp Aspen in Columbia SC. with juveniles that were incarcerated, then moved on to work with adults at Bryan Pyschiatric Hospital with those who suffer from severe and persistent mental illness, and in both facilities one of my duties was to provide group counseling to the patients. I want to gain more knowledge so I can reach and help a larger variety of people in my career. **Carmetta M** Hello everyone, My name is Carmetta and I am a 21 year Active Duty Army Veteran with two beautiful children currently stationed in DC. My military career started with the Army National Guard so when I was part-time, my full-time career was teaching Health for over 15 years. I currently have a Masters in Sports Marketing and Sports Administrations from the Univeristy of Southern, MS and had the opportunity to facilitate a variety of Community/Public Health courses in this field for a couple of colleges as an Adjunct Instructor. The purpose for taking this course is to build a new career in Counseling and understand group clinical practices for behavioral health therapy. Over the last decade, I provided some type of counsel to youth, young adults, and soldiers. Since I am still in the ranks with the Soldiers, my first experience or understanding with group therapy was on a deployment. I was the Mortuary Affairs Officer in Charge for the entire Middle East. Because of the nature of the position, behavioral health was required for individual soldiers or groups of soldiers throughout the deployment. Being a listening ear to the soldier and making referrals to behavioral health was one of many task I conducted in that position of leadership. Some personal experiences also were driven points to specialize in behavioral health and professional counseling. I look forward to all of the experience and shared ideas in this course and hope to learn some topics that can be applied in everyday life. Respectfully, Carmetta _ _ _ _
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