Western Heritage 8th Edition

Brittney Henley Pd. 2A Chapter 12: Age of Religious Wars Key Topics; -War between Calvinists and Catholics in France. -The Spanish occupation of the Netherlands. -Struggle for supremacy between England and Spain. -The devastation of Central Europe during the Thirty Years’ War. Vocabulary |Notes | | | | |Counter Reformation- A movement within the Rome |Renewed Religious Struggle | |Catholic Church that sought to revitalize the |Peace of Augsburg (1555)- A regions rule would determine its religion, However it | |church and oppose Protestantism. did not recognize Non Lutheran Protestants | | |Geneva became a refuge for persecuted protestants and an international school for | |Baroque Art- 3 dimensional display of life and |protestant leaders | |energy. | | | | |Politiques- Ruler who urged tolerance and |French Wars of Religion | |moderation and compromise on religious matters |Anti-Protestant Measures and the struggle for political power | | |French Protestants are known as Huguenots. | |They were persecuted by the French, when King Charles of Germany / Spain captured | |Huguenots- French Protestants. |Frances King’. To pacify King Charles, France persecutes the Huguenots in the | | |hopes of gaining the freedom of the King of France. | | | | |Edict of Fontainebleau—Subjected French Protestants to the inquisition | | |France remain hostile to the protestants until King Henry of Navarre gains the | | |throne | | | | | |3 competing fraction for the Kings (Francis II) ear in France | | |Bourbons- power in the south and west | | |Montmorency-Chatillons- controlled the center of France | | |Guises- dominate in eastern France / Strongest power and had more influence over | | |the king due to family connection | | |Bourbons and Montmorency-Chatillons developed strong Huguenot sympathies | | | | | |Conspiracy of Amboise (1560) – Bourbons and Montmorency-Chatillons plotted to | | |kidnap the king of France (Frances II) | | | | | |Appeal of Calvinism | | |Huguenots were in important geographic areas and were heavily represented among | | |the more powerful segments of French society. They wanted to establish sovereignty| | |with in France. | | | | | |Catherine De Medici and the Guises | | |Catherine mother to 15 year old Frances II becomes the regent of France upon the | | |death of her husband Henry II. | |On the death of Frances II her younger son Charles IX becomes king where she | | |resides as regent. Catherine fears the power of the Guiles family and sought | | |alliances with the Protestants. | | |She issues the January Edict which allows protestants freedom to worship publicly | | |outside of towns. | | |Duke of Guise surprised a protestant congregation at Vassy, Champagne and | | |massacred the worshipers.
This is the beginning of the French wars of Religion | | |March 1562 | | | | | | | | |Peace of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1570) | | |Ended the thirty year war, the crown acknowledging the power of the Protestant | | |nobility, granted Huguenots religious freedoms within their territory. | | |Catherine fearing the mounting power of the other two families and Protestants she| |Coligny: leader of the Huguenots, Charles IX most|cultivates the support of the Guise. | |trusted advisor. | | | |The Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre | | |Catherine tried to have Coligny assassinated by a bullet.
Fearing the fallout from| | |the attempt, she convinces King Charles that the Huguenots were attempting to | | |attack Paris | | |On Saint Bartholomew’s Day August 24, 1572, Coligny and 3000 Huguenots were | | |massacred in Paris. Within 3days another 20,000 were executed | | | | | |The Rise to Power of Henry Navarre | | |Henry III sought the middle ground and gained support from a growing body of | |Protestant Resistance Theory: |neutral Catholics and Huguenots. | | | |John Knox- wrote First Blast of the Trumpet |Peace of Beaulieu (May 1576)- granted the Huguenots almost complete religious and | |against the Terrible Regiment of Women |civil freedom. It was later recanted because of political pressure of the Catholic| |-He declared removal of a heathen tyrant was |League. Both religious orders pick up arms. | |permissible | | | |Henry Navarre led the Protestant army. Henry III brother-in-law) | |Francois Hotman- wrote Franco-Gallia | | |-Humanist argument that representative Estate |Day of the Barricades –Henry III surprise attack on the Catholic League (Spain | |General held more authority then the French king |Supported) and failed. Henry then assassinated the Duke and Cardinal of Guise. | | |Reprisal from the League was fierce causing Henry III to join forces with Henry | |Theodore Beza- wrote On the Right of Magistrates |Navarre. Henry III was killed; Henry IV (Navarre) is the next successor to the | |Over their Subjects |throne. |-Permissible for lower authorities to overthrow | | |tyrannical rulers |Protestant as king, the League wants France to be Catholic but politically weak so| | |Spain sends in troops to help achieve this goal in hopes of putting his daughter | |Philippe du Plessis Mornay- Defense of Liberty |on the throne. | |Against Tyrants |The French rallied behind their king disbanding the League and outing the Spanish. | |-Princes, Nobles and magistrates are guardians |Henry IV turns Catholic.
Ending the war of religion in France | |and to take up arms against tyranny in other land| | | | | | | | | |Edict of Nantes | | |Proclaimed a formal religious settlement it recognized minor religions in an | | |official Catholic country | | | | | |Treaty of Vervins -ended hostility between France and Spain | | | | | |Imperial Spain and the Reign of Philip II | | |Gold Silver and bullion were being imported from Spain’s colonies in the New | | |World. | | |The increased wealth and population in large cities in Europe triggered inflation. | | | | | |Fewer jobs, less food, wages stagnated and greater coinage in circulation while | | |prices increased. | | | | |The Revolt in the Netherlands- | | |Antoine Perrenot- Cardinal Granvelle. | | |Perrenot hoped to break the local autonomy of the Netherlands providences and | | |establish a centralized royal government directed from Madrid, and religious | | |conformity to Catholic. | | |Granvelle proceeded to reorganize the Netherlands. | |William of Nassau (Prince of Orange) & Count of Egmont organized the Dutch | | |nobility in opposition, which had Granvelle removed from office | | | | | |The Compromise- | | |Margaret (Regent of Spain) spurned the protesters. Leads them to call for aid and | | |rebel against Spain; however the nobility does not support the rebellion. | | |Duke of Alba-sent to the Netherlands to gain control back. | | |He had several thousand suspected heretics publicly executed. | | |He then taxed the people of Netherlands to pay for the suppressing of the revolt. | | | | |Pacification of Ghent- | | |November 4 1576: Spanish mercenaries ran amok in Antwerp killing 7000 people in | | |the streets known as the Spanish fury. | | | | | |Pacification of Ghent (November 8, 1575)- Catholic regions and Protestant regions | | |in the Netherlands unified to oppose Spain. | | | | | |Perpetual Edict- provided for removal of all Spanish troops from the Netherlands | | |within 20 days. | | | | | | | |Netherlands Independence- | | |King of Spain Phillip II declared William of Orange an outlaw. | | |December 1580 William of Orange publicly denounced Phillip as a Heathen and tyrant| | |and should not be obeyed. | | |Known as The Apology. | | |Peace of Westphalia in 1648 – Netherlands is fully recognized | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |England and Spain 1553-1603 | | |[pic] | | | | | |Jane Grey (granddaughter to Henry), 3rd Queen | | | | | | | | | | | |Mary I – reign lasted 5 years | | |Edward VI died. | | |Lady Jane Grey tried to ascend to throne. | | |Mary Tudor was the rightful heir. Grey-9 days Queen then beheaded. | | |Mary marries Prince Philip II of Spain. Mary | | |Had Parliament repeal the Protestant laws.
Mary | | |Decreed all of England Catholic, burned Protestant leaders at the stake. | | |Dies 1558 | | | | |The Compromise: A solemn pledge to resist the |Elizabeth I – takes throne 1558 | |decrees of Trent and the Inquisition. |Daughter of Henry and half sister to Mary. | | |Advisor William Cecil. | |Passed laws for religious toleration | | | | | |Act of Supremacy 1559- Repealing all anti-Protestant legislation of Mary Tudor. | | | | | |Phillip II seeks marriage with Elizabeth. | | |Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots seeks England throne. | | |Supporters claim Elizabeth is illegitimate. | | |Queen of Scots is the granddaughter to Henry the VIII’s sister Margaret. | |Raised French and Catholic. | | | | | |Deterioration of Relation with Spain | | |Spanish Duke of Alba (1547)- marched troops into the Netherlands; England sees | | |this as a threat due its close proximity to England. | | |Elizabeth allows pirating of Spanish vessels. | | | | |Mary Queen of Scots | | |Elizabeth executes Mary Queen of Scotts (second cousin) for plotting against the | | |crown. | | |Mary’s husband is killed by her lover, who is acquitted, and then marries Mary. | | |This causes outrage from her people. | | |Mary surrenders her throne to her one year old son James VI, who later becomes | | |Elizabeth’s heir to throne. | |The pope authorize Spain to invade England for the killing of Mary who was their | | |hope to turn England Catholic | | | | | |The Armanda | | |May 30 1587 -130 ships with 25,000 sailors sent to invade England. | | |Spain wanted the ships to dock in France before continuing the invasion. | | |France prohibits the ships from leaving and a fog roles in around the channel. | | |England has advantage and wins. | | | | |Thirty Year War | | |Preconditions for War | | |Germany = Holly Rome | | |Germany consists of 360 autonomous entities. | | |Each had its own tolls, taxes, coins and religion, making it difficult to travel | | |and do business | | | | |Four Periods of War- | | |Bohemian (1618-1625) Swedish (1630-1635) | | |Danish (1625-1629) Swedish-French (1635-1648) | | | | | |Bohemian Period- | | |Ferdinand ascends to the throne and wants to return the region to Catholicism. | | |He revokes the religious freedoms of the Bohemian Protestants. | | | | | |Defenestration of Prague- Protestant nobility in Prague throw Ferdinand III’s | | |regents out of window in reaction to the revoke of religious freedoms. They did | | |not die, landed on manure which cushioned their fall. | | | | |Ferdinand was managed to subdue the Protestants and re-Catholicize Bohemian | | | | | |Danish Period- (1625-1629) | | |Lutheran King Christian IV of Demark picks up Protestant banner-invades Germany | | |and loses. | | |Ferdinand attacks Demark and breaks Protestant resistance. | | |Causes fear among all Protestants. | | | | | |Edict of Restitution in 1629- Calvinism is illegal and orders the return of all | | |church lands acquired by the Lutherans. | | | | | | | |The Swedish Periods (1630-1635) | | |Gustavus Adolphus king of Sweden | | |Was a unified Lutheran nation, bankrolled by France, an wished to keep the | | |Habsburg armies tied down in Germany. | | |Adolphus won several battles due to a lighter army and better weapons. | | |Adolphus is killed on the battlefield. | | | | |Peace of Prague in 1635- majority of the Protestants states reached a compromise | | |with Ferdinand, barring the Swedes | | | | | |Peace of Prague plunged them into the fourth war. | | | | | |The Swedish-French Period (1635-1648) | | |The French join the war in 1635. | | |Dragged on for 13 years with Spanish, French and Swedish soldiers looting Germany. | | | | |About 1/3 of the German population died as a direct result of the war. | | | | | |Treaty of Westphalia- | | | | | |The Treaty of Westphalia 1648 -brought all hostilities within the Holy Roman | | |Empire to an end.
Ended Edict of Restitution and reasserted the Peace of Augsburg,| | |which allows each ruler to determine its religion. | | | | | |German princes become supreme over their principalities. | Summary: From Martin Luther’s death in 1546 until the middle of the seventeenth century, European life was dominated by religiously and politically inspired violence. France descended into nearly 50 years of civil war before emerging with a united monarchy under the terms of the Edict of Nantes in 1598. Spain escaped civil strife and remained firmly Catholic.
Spain’s American empire provided immense wealth, but Spain failed to subdue Protestant nationalism in the Netherlands and suffered defeat of its Armada naval fleet at the hands of the English. As a result, Spain’s position in international affairs declined. Unlike the French, the English managed to avoid civil war under the inspired leadership of Queen Elizabeth I. In Germany, the original center of the Reformation, Lutherans and Catholics had come to tolerate each other. But in the early seventeenth century the temporary compromises collapsed. The resulting free-for-all, known as the Thirty Years’ War (1618–1648), consumed much of Europe’s energies until it was resolved in the Peace of Westphalia. ———————– Elizabeth I 4th, Queen Mary I 2nd, Queen Edward VI 1st, King Henry VIII King

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