The Life Stages 0-3 years is Tommy 4-9 years is Amy 10-18 years is Abbey 19-65 years is Denise/Jack 65+ years is Pat The human life p is set in age stages; these are called Life Stages. The stages are listed from 0-3 years to 65+ years. Growth is a term used within describing the life stages because it’s a term to describe an increase in quantity. For example, as children grow the height and weight increases. We also use the term development; this describes the development of someone’s abilities, as they grow older. We can also use this term to describe the development of quantity change, such as height and weight.
Also describing the lift stages, we use the term called maturation. This is different to development and growth. Puberty is an example of maturation because when development is expected to be due to a genetically automated sequence of change. Development norms, is another term we use to describe a set of average expectations to an infants or child’s development. Holistic development is similar but instead its describing someone’s physical, emotional, intellectual and social development in one. Conception & pregnancy A human baby’s life begins at conception.
A woman usually develops 1 egg per month, roughly this happens 2 weeks after her last period. A women is most likely to get pregnant within a day or so of ovulation. An egg lives for about 12-24 hours after its released. For a woman to actually get pregnant the egg needs to be fertilized by a sperm cell within this time. Pregnancy is divided into 3 trimesters. Each trimester is a little longer than 13 weeks. The first month marks the beginning of the first trimester. 1, 2 and 3 weeks The egg is fertilized in one of the fallopian tubes and is carried into the uterus.
Fertilization of the egg happens in the fallopian tube. As the egg passes through the fallopian tube is sets itself in the wall of the uterus. The embryo becomes a shape of a pear with a head shaped rounded, pointed lower spine and notochord running along its back. 4- 5 weeks The embryo becomes C-shaped and a tail is visible. The umbilical cord forms and the forebrain enlarge; at this stage of pregnancy the internal organs a begun to form. During this stage of development, the embryo is vulnerable to harmful substances consumed by the mother, which may cause defects. 6-8 weeks
The eyes, mouth, nose and ears have begun to form and the limbs grow rapidly from tiny buds. The head and face has formed more human, the head is more upright, and the tail has gone. Legs and arms have developed. Fingers and toes have formed. 9-10 weeks * The embryo develops into a fetus after 10 weeks. * Fingers and toes are longer. The umbilical cord connects the abdomen of the fetus to the placenta. The placenta is attached to the wall of the uterus. It absorbs nutrients from the woman’s bloodstream. The cord carries nutrients and oxygen to the fetus and takes wastes away from the fetus. 1-12 weeks The fetus is now measured from the top of its head to its buttocks. This is called crown-rump length. The fetus has a CRL of 2–3 inches. Its Fingers and toes are no longer webbed whilst the Bones begin hardening. Skin and fingernails begin to grow. Changes triggered by hormones begin to make external sex organs appear — female or male. The fetus begins making spontaneous movements. Kidneys start making urine, Early sweat glands appear and Eyelids are fused together. 13-14 weeks (second trimester) The baby has a CRL of about 3 inches long which is about 8 cm long at this stage.
The sex of the fetus can sometimes be seen on the ultra sound of the mothers scan. Hair begins to grow on the babys head and the roof of the baby’s mouth is formed, whilst the prostate glands are developing on the male. Ovaries move down from the abdomen to the pelvic area in the female. 15-16 weeks Some of the early signs and symptoms of pregnancy begin to be relieved during the fourth month for example Nausea is usually reduced. But other digestive problems — heartburn and constipation — may be still occurring. Breast changes — growth, soreness, and darkening of the areola — usually continue.
It’s common for women to have shortness of breath or to breathe faster. Increased blood flow may lead to unpleasant pregnancy symptoms, such as bleeding gums, nosebleeds, or nasal stuffiness. Pregnant women also may feel dizzy or faint because of the changes to their blood and blood vessels. 17-20 weeks The fetus has CRL of about 6. 5 inches long which is 16cm long. The fine downy hair begins to cover the body, which is called Lanugo. The skin is also covered with Vernix Caseosa, which is a greasy material that covers the body. The uterus now has developed into either a male or female.
Women usually feel faint movements for the first time during the fifth month. It may feel like flutters or butterflies in the stomach. The pregnancy symptoms of the fourth month continue into the 5th month- Heartburn, constipation, breast changes, dizziness, shortness of breath, nosebleeds, and gum bleeding are common. Breasts may be as much as 2 cup sizes bigger by this time. 21-24 months The baby now has a CRL of about 7 inches, which is about 18-19 cm long. The bone marrow now starts to develop blood cells and taste buds start to form. Pregnancy symptoms from the fourth and fifth month usually continue.
Shortness of breath may improve. Breasts may start producing colostrum — tiny drops of early milk. This may continue throughout pregnancy. Some women have Braxton-Hicks contractions. They feel like a painless squeezing of the uterus or abdomen. This is the uterus’s way of practicing for labor and delivery. Braxton-Hicks contractions are normal and not a sign of preterm labor. But women should check with their health care providers if they have painful or frequent contractions or if they have any concerns. Weeks 25–26 The baby has now got a CRL of about 9 inches long which is roughly 23 inches long.
Also the baby develops more and more fat from now until end of pregnancy. * Week 27–28 The baby now has a CRL of about 10 inches which is 25 cm long. Eyelids are usually fused together until 28 weeks. A woman’s uterus continues expanding. Back pain is common. Pregnancy symptoms from earlier months continue. Dizziness may lessen. * 29-30 weeks (third trimester) * * The fetus has a CRL of about 10. 5 inches (27 cm). Testes usually begin descending into the scrotum from the abdomen between weeks 30 and 34 in a male fetus. This is usually complete by 40 weeks. Week 31–32 The fetus has a CRL of about 11 inches (28 cm). Lanugo starts falling off. ?Women often start feeling tired and have a more difficult time breathing as the uterus expands up. They may get varicose veins — blue or red swollen veins most often in the legs — or hemorrhoids — varicose veins of the rectum. Hemorrhoids can be painful and itchy and cause bleeding. Women may also get stretch marks where skin has been expanded. Braxton-Hicks contractions, heartburn, and constipation may continue. Women may urinate a bit when sneezing or laughing because of pressure from the uterus on the bladder.
Hormones may make hair appear fuller and healthier. Weeks 33-36 * The fetus has a CRL of about 12 inches (30 cm). The eyes have developed enough for pupils to constrict and dilate when exposed to light. * Lanugo is nearly all gone. The fetus is considerably fatter, and the * Skin is no longer wrinkled. 37-40 weeks * The fetus has a CRL of about 13–14 inches (34–36 cm). * The fetus has a firm grasp. Many women give birth around this * Time. The average new born weighs around 7-8lbs which is * Around 18-22 inches long with legs extended.
By the end of pregnancy, the uterus has expanded from a woman’s pelvis to the bottom of her rib cage. Pregnancy symptoms in the tenth month largely depend on when the fetus drops down into lower part of the uterus in the pelvis. Shortness of breath, heartburn, and constipation usually improve when the fetus drops. But the position of the fetus lower in the pelvis causes frequent urination and trouble holding urine. The cervix will begin to open — dilate — to prepare for delivery. This may happen a few weeks before delivery, or it might start when a woman goes into labor.
A woman may feel sharp pains in her vagina as the cervix dilates. After the newborn is delivered, the placenta and other tissues also come out of the woman’s body. This is called the afterbirth. For the first couple of days after giving birth, Tommys mother can feel the top of your uterus at or a few finger widths below the level of your belly button. In a week, her uterus weighs a little over a pound – half of what it weighed just after she gave birth. After two weeks, it’s down to a mere 11 ounces and located entirely within her pelvis.
By about four weeks, it should be close to its pre-pregnancy weight of 3. 5 ounces or less. This process is called involution of the uterus. Even after her uterus shrinks back into her pelvis, you may continue to look somewhat pregnant for several weeks or longer. That’s because her abdominal muscles get stretched out during pregnancy, and it will take time – and regular exercise – to get your belly back in shape. 0-3 years physical development motor control develops from the head and moves down through the arms and the bottom and then to the legs and feet.
Initial movements are reflexive in nature, such as turning the head to the side when the cheek is stroked; this then leads to feeding. Motor skills are related to the growing ability to observe and interact with the environment. According to the healthy children American website, a baby turns its head from side to side when lying on their back or belly and brings both hands together at the chest or mouth at 1 month of age. 3-6 months physical development At 3 months of age, an infant progresses at lifting the head and chest up when lying on its belly and may press up with its arms.
At 3 months old, Tommy should beable to kick his legs when lying on his belly or back. Also at this age, Tommy should beable to play with soft toys that are required for his age. Tommy will have a sharp grasp with his hands so he can hold objects such as toys securely (if small). According to the healthy children American website, between 3 and 4 months Tommy begins rolling from his belly to his back and then back to belly around 6 months old. 6-12 months old physical development The average age at which an infact sits without support is 6 months old, so by the time tommy is this age he should be able to do this.
Standing with support, Tommy should beable to do this roughly at 7. 6 months (according to healthy children American website). Infants in the study, crawl on hands and knees at 8. 5 months, walking with assistance occurs usually at 9. 2 months. The average age for a baby to walk alone is 11 months. 12-24 months old physical development. The world health organization study notes that a young toddler like Tommy can take two-three steps alone around 12 months. Also they start to walk without support across a room with stopping or changing direction between 13-15 months.
Around 18 months of age Tommy will be kicking and throwing balls, running, climbing stairs with assistance and playing with scooters with confidence. 24-36 months old physical development Between the ages of 2 and 3, balance improves and tommy walks with a smoother pattern. During this time tommy may be able to balance on 1 foot, walk backwards and walk on tiptoes. Usually around 24 months, tommy starts to jump over obstacles around 36 months. At 24 months tommy can climb a small ladder and go down a small slide. Around 35 months, Tommy can confidently go around a playground, trying out all the playground climbing frames.
Also ride a bike suitable for his age or scooter. 0-3 months intellectual development Around this stage of life, theres not much intellectual about Tommy, Its usually about the relationship between him and his parents. When tommy first opened his eyes, he would just stare a lot at whats around him. He fixates on objects around him that usually move, around 12 inches from his face. At this stage Tommy will begin to know who his parents are and distinguish their faces from strangers faces. He will also beable to exhibit sense of size, colour and shape recognition. 4-8 months intellectual development
At this stage of Tommy’s life intellectual development, his starts to handle and explore objects, such as feel, taste and smell objects. Such as cuddly toys. They also start to explore their surroundings like their home and who lives with him. At this stage his starts to point and use it as a sign of communication if he wants something. Tommy may show signs of fear, for example falling. He may start to imitate actions such as “pat-a-cake’’. He also may want to play games repetitively and only likes one toy or book to look at once. 8-12 months intellectual development At this stage, Tommy may start gesturing by giving a wave to say goodbye or lowing kisses. He may also start to copy relatives and mimic movements, for example dancing and clapping. Also at this stage tommy can start to recognize facial features, such as eyes, nose, ears and mouth. He might also beable to identify objects such as books, balls and animals. Tommy may also like to do things intentionally for reaction, such as dropping toys. Tommy at this stage may show a memory of short term which is perfectly normal. 12-24 months intellectual development At this stage of development tommy may start to have his own imagination especially during play time, so he may start to move things around the floor.
He also may start to potty train and understand when he needs to go toilet. Tommy may start to show an understanding of shapes and colours and start to colour and draw himself with crayons and paints. With memory skills, these will show an increase as he gets older and as the brain develops properly. 24-36 months intellectual development At this stage of tommys intellectual development he can speak fully and show an understanding of what others are saying to him and what he might ask him to do. He may start to development in comparing objects to others such as ‘little’, ‘bigger’, or ‘really big’.
He may also start to count up to ten or maybe more. Tommy may start to match pictures and objects and start to play- act thoughts, for example tommy may start to pretend to be a dinosaur. He may also start to learn how to share and use terms such as please and thank you. 0-3 months emotional and social development At this stage of tommys social and emiontal development, he may start off by being attached to parents or carers. At the first few weeks of Tommys life he may tend to be used to the people around him, so the cloest, he will be attached quicker. He may also enjoy being held or cuddled.
He may also express discomfort, enjoyment or unhappiness. He may also entertain himself by playing with fingers, watching the t. v such as programs that consist of movement and bright colours. 4-8 months social and emotional development At this stage of Tommys life he may have shown full attachment to either his mother/father or carer, he may also develop a sense of security and trust with parents or carer, he may also show preference and reaction of separation from his mother/father or carer. This way he may show different responds to facial expressions and sounds.
He may love to be picked up, held and cuddled by parents or relatives. He may start to hear himself at this stage and start to make loud noises, laugh and smile. To communicate he ay cry and he may seek attention. 8-12 months social and emotional development When Tommy is a really young baby he shows full attachment to his parents which is immediate, that way he may also always want to be near them or in their sight, showing this he may begin to show fear to strangers. He may also start to be emotionally attached to something socialable like a t. program, blanket or a toy. He also may start to enjoy going out and being socialable for example, going shopping or going to the park. 12-24 months social and emotional development At this stage of social and emotion development Tommy may start to develop a sense of humor and start to love being in the center of attention. He may also start to show selfishness and begin not to share his toys with other friends. With Tommy he lives with his parents so he may start to copy their daily activities such as driving, reading, cooking, hugging and blowing kisses.
At this stage Tommy will start to try new things every day, show jealousy towards his parents and get frustrated really easy. 24-36 months social and emotional development As a child gets older, their emotional and social development gets a lot more interesting. Tommy my start to get confident and except new people and start to talk to them but also if they still have that full attachment to their parents, they may start to show shyness to around new people. If he gets upset, he may start to pull hair, kick, slap or bite other children. Also he may start to show some patients on the other hand.
Around places, objects, certain people he may start to show dislike. He may be more sensitive around people and if they cry he may turn it into a tantrum. 4-9 years growth development Between the ages of 4 and 9 children may begin to look thinner, this is because they grow increasingly but their fact accumulation is staying relatively the same. By the time Amy is 6 years old, North Dakota state university that they begin to proportion a lot better and her centre of gravity will be centrally located. She is likely to experience a growth spurt between the ages of 6-8 and may notice hair begins to grow darker.
Nutrition intake and genetics are big factors when it comes to her growth at this stage. 4-5 years growth development At 4 years of age, Amy will fully develop hand-eye co-ordination, that will allow her to play with objects that have smaller perplexed parts to them. Amy will show that shes energetic most of the time and prefer running and jumping, by the age of 5, she will beable to catch a ball, throw a ball over her head, hop on one foot, walk up and down the stairs alone and hold cutlery properly with 3 fingers rather than her whole fist. -7 years growth development Shortly after 5 years, Amy will beable to skip and have the ability to bounce a ball and skate. By the age of 7 she should be able to ride a bike, draw shapes and patterns. Also Amy maybe beable to use a comb in her hair, brush her own teeth and also tie her own hair up in a pony tail. Also at this stage she will beable to do simple household tasks such as making her bed, tidying up after herself. At school she may show a development in playing musical instruments. 7-9 years growth development
Between the ages of 7 and 9, Amy will beable to identify herself during school or things they take part in. Amy will be able to recognize herself, such as at school, either being an athlete or artist. This is influenced from teachers at school, parents or siblings. By this time, amy is capable to kick, throw and roll, which makes them able to take part in organized sports at school such as football, hockey and rounder’s. Intellectual development 4 – 9 years Around 4 years of ages Amys development of intelligence is still very simple but getting more and more intelligent by the days.
Amy should be asking a lot of questions around 5-6 years old such as ‘why is the sky blue? ’, ‘why do birds have feathers? ’. Amy will begin to ask more and more questions every day but this is the development of a milestone. Around this stage of 5 years, amy will start to recognize familiar colours and understand the idea of same and different, pretend and fantasize more creatively, she will be able to remember parts of stories, understand times of the day, count and understand the concept, sort objects by shape and colour, complete puzzles, recognize different shapes and colours.
Five years and above, Amy will start to development more sophisticated thinking and learning abilities. Children around 7-9 year often think in very concrete ways, needing hands-on examples to improve their understanding. They often can not change the rules of a game to make it more fun, for example because they perceive rules to be firm and rigid. As children’s minds mature like Amy, she will development more flexible in their thinking. Children in this age group are capable of more abstract thought aswel. Emotional and social development 4-9 years
Four year olds are moving out into the world and can usually play happily with other children and enjoy lots of physical games aswel as tell stories. As Amy gets to between 5 and 6 years old, she may then start to learn about the feelings and needs of others and can share their toys plus take turns, at least some of the times. In some stages of Amy’s life can get jealous of her parents relationship. This is where the often development of the game ‘mummies and daddies’ comes from, this is a well-known game for children to grow up on.
Playing games such as ‘mummies and daddies’ allows her to try out various adult roles in life. Around 6-7 years, children begin to actually learn new things and experience learning new things at school so they develop a sense of eagerness in themselves. They generally prefer structured activities to more open-ended experiences. Amy may wonder about the world and ask a lot of ‘what if? ’ questions. Pretend play means a lot to Amy at this stage in her child hood because they develop a strong imagination and involve others like friends at school.
Around 8 and 9 years, children such as Amy start to involve more people in their lives, for example at school, amy may start to have best friends and play with other children with the same gender. As amy grows older she grows out of being self-centered as should be at around 5 years old because she has matured. Also around this stage amy will begin to understand other peoples views and can imagine themselves in situations of other friends experiences. Physical development 10 -18 years (adolescence) 10-11 years physical development
Physical development around this time it’s the start of many different experiences for young children and teenagers. For girls between the ages of 11 and 13, it may sometimes begin earlier for some children; puberty begins. Girls usually start around 2 years before boys. Boys usually start between the ages of 13 and 15 years. Puberty is an important stage for abbey because it prepares the body for sexual reproduction. It is all started by the hormones and controlled but the sexual development. Around the teen years, girls and boys will experience a definite growth spurt. 12-14 years physical development round this physical development of life for teenagers, its all about the development of puberty, for girls around abbeys age, around the breast area they begin to be quite painful because they are beginning to develop. Usually around 13 years of age, Abbey may have started her menstrual cycle and public hair has developed. For boys on the other hand, testicular growth begins, the voice changes, pubic hair develops and they may start to experience “wet dreams”. 15-17 years physical development around this age, Abbey would of completed the physical changes related to puberty by the age of 15.
Boys are still developing around this age, maturing and gaining strength. Muscle mass develops and they are completing the development of sexual traits. Around 15-17 years, oily skin may appear which turns into acne. Hair has grown under the armpits. Breasts have developed but still maybe growing. Abbey may have developed a curvy outline to her hips which is caused from fat deposition. Internally wise, primary sexual organs grow such as uterus and vagina, ovulation and menstruation has fully developed, and lastly public hair has grown. 18 years physical development
Around 18 years, many of the major changes for growth in puberty have completed by this age, in boys and girls. They are still growing but major changes have developed. For boys around 18 years, facial hair has grown on the face, hair is also under the armpits, testes have produced sperm. The voice box, which is called the larynx, has broken and the voice has developed deeper. The prostate gland produces secretions, and the penis has enlarged. Intellectual development 10-18 years. Between the ages of 10 and 13 years, preteens start to experience “stressful” imes at school or high school because they are having their first “exams”. Preteens around this stage develop abstract thoughts usually by the age of 13. Between the ages of 11-14 years, they are still concrete thinkers- they perceive things as good and bag and whats wrong and rights. They are just beginning to imagine possibilities, recognize consequences of their actions and anticipate what others are thinking. Anxiety enters their lifes and may cause major distractions interfering with abstract thinking.
Teenagers may show an interest in ideas, ideals, values and social issues. Around 15 and 16, at this stage they show a well better established abstract thinking at school and in any other situations that may occur. Around this age Abbey may start to make applications to her own current and future situations and social situations. As abbey progresses in life, abilities to abstract thinking develop better and problem-solving skills increased by demands at school and college. Preteens and teens tend to think things wont happen to them, this explains why they are risk-takers.
Also they believe they are the center of attention, for example, abbey may have a pimple on her forehead, this is making her life hell right now. This explains why teenagers are terribly self-conscious. Social and emotional development 10-18 years Around this stage of Abbeys teenage life, she begins to spend more time with her friends and less time in home and with her family. Abbey will start to form her own identity around 12-13 years and try different clothes, hair styles, friends, music and hobbies. This will then progress and carry on throughout her teenage life.
Preteens like abbey around 13-14, push limits that adults put on them to assert their independence, preteens and teenagers like Abbey around 14 and 15 may start to develop more moody moods and start to express mixed feelings about “breaking away” from parents. Troubled youth may act out (for example, get into physical fights, use alcohol or other drugs, skip school) to express emotional pain. Physical development 19-65 years Adults in this age have to be very careful because there are many different age related changes to become as Denise grows up. Some individuals, not so much Denise have to wear glasses for reading and writing.
Some adults like denise may start to lose there hearing in later adult hood. Adults tend to have some changes in hair colour, it may start to turn grey. Men sometimes start to lose there hair around 35 to 45 years old, around 45, women start their menopause. Young adults start to see and maybe feel their physical changes between the ages of 18-28. Adults are still fit and healthy at young adult hood stage but not as fit as they used to be. Around the ages of 30, adults may start to feel that their fitness, speed and strength has decreased. Some adults still go to the gym in their middle adulthood stages to keep feeling healthy and fit.
Early adulthood Early adult hood is the first stage of adulthood in which the body physically changes. In this stage, denise may have continued to add abit of height and weight to her late teenage frame come into her adult hood. The body continues to undergo significant hormonal changes. In menm their heard may grow a little thick, the voice may become slightly more deepeer and richer. Early adulthood is the period when women have children, so this is the time denise would of gained abit of weight and breast development would of completed. Middle adulthood
Middle adulthood is the second stage of adulthood in which one of the most noticeable changes is loss of elasticity in the skin, especially in the face. This results to wrinkles and lines in the skin, this then shows denise “aging”. Men usually gain weight around the stomach and women gain weight around the hips and legs. Strength and flexibility both decrease in both genders. Women usually experience hormonal changes during this period that result in rhe loss of ability to reproduce, this then is called the menopause. Both genders experience graying of the hair or the hair may start to thin out.
Later adulthood Late adulthood is the final stage of physical change, the skin continues to lose elasticity as it started in middle adulthood and the result is deeper lines and wrinkles, age spots or brown spots often form. Eye sight deteriorates, which causes them to need stronger glasses. Reaction time slows down and appetitive may also slow down. Intellectual development 19-65 years Intellectual development may increase in this age group. Some older adults like Denise may have a slower reaction to things but increase in knowledge may give back for this in many work situations.
Older adults are more skilled then younger adults and teengers when it comes to complex decisions. Adults like Denise are typically more focused in specific directions, having gained insight and understanding from life events that teenagers and young adults have not yet experienced. No longer viewing the world from an absolute and fixed perspective, middle adults have learned how to make compromises, question the establishment, and work through disputes. In recent years, colleges and universities have reported an increased enrollment of adult learners—students age 25 or older.
Of course, labeling this age group as adult learners is not to imply that the typical college student is not also an adult. Academic institutions typically identify those outside the 18–21 range as adults, because most have been working and rearing families for some time before deciding to enter or reenter college. Compared with younger students, adult learners may also have special needs: anxiety or low self-confidence about taking classes with younger adults, feelings of academic isolation and alienation, fears of not fitting in, or difficulties juggling academic, work, and domestic schedules.
Adults most often choose to go to college for work-related purposes. Many employers require workers to attain certain levels of education in order to qualify for promotions. Other workers go to college to learn new skills in preparation for another career. Additionally, certain organizations, such as state licensing boards, may require professionals to have a certain number of continuing education hours each year to maintain their licenses. Finally, adults may also return to college simply for personal enrichment.
Social and emotional 18-65 years Young adults like Denise face some difficult developmental tasks. Denise maybe at the beginning of this stage is concerned with beginning a career. They may be studying to gain the serious qualifications, or training at the entry level of an organization. Some will not be so lucky. In many countries, youth unemployment rates have been very high during the last century and appear set to continue. Studying, employment and unemployment each presents its stresses.
At the same time, young adults tend to be finding their way through the world of romance, which can also lead to stress and anguish. All of this happens alongside changes in relation- ships with parents, and the increasing expectation that the young person will take responsibility for her own life – including, perhaps, a shift to a new home. It would be an unusual person like denise indeed who proceeded through these developmental tasks without at least occasionally wondering who she is, or who she is becoming, and how she is faring compared to her peers.
For most people, facing these issues brings a range of emotional reactions. Physical changes 65+ During late adulthood, the senses begin to dull. With age, the lenses of the eye discolor and become rigid, interfering with the perception of color and distance and the ability to read. Without corrective glasses, nearly half the elderly population would be legally blind. Hearing also diminishes, especially the ability to detect high-pitched sounds. As a result, the elderly may develop suspiciousness or even a mild form of paranoia to not being
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