International/Transnational Crimes Saphia Christopher Strayer University CRJ 330 Professor Ackerman International crimes can be described as “crimes against the peace and security of mankind”. International crimes are based on international agreements between countries or on legal precedents developed through history, and include offenses such as such as genocide, torture, and enslavement of populations. These are among the acts identified by consensus among nations as being illegal everywhere. Dammer & Albanese, 2011). The Foca rape case verdict in February 2001 was the first time that individuals were convicted for rape as a crime against humanity. The Foca rape case was prosecuted by the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (the ICTY) in an effort to bring to justice those responsible for crimes against humanity in the war in Bosnia. Prior to the Foca rape case no one had ever been convicted of rape as a crime against humanity.
Rape causes serious bodily or mental harm and international criminal tribunals have indicated that rape can constitute genocide when it is directed toward destroying a national, ethnic, racial or religious group. Under international law the crime of rape is a physical invasion of a sexual nature, which is not limited to a physical invasion of the body and may involve acts where there is no penetration or even physical contact (Parker, 2010). The prosecution in the Foca rape case argued the use of rape in attacks on civilians was widespread and systematic.
To support this allegation the prosecution worked to show that the tactic was repeated and continuous (systematic) and that what had happened in Foca was a representative sample of Serbian methods of ethnic cleansing in Bosnia (widespread). The court ruled that these acts of rape were recognized as crimes against humanity because they were part of a systematic and widespread campaign and the acts included elements of enslavement (Parker, 2010). Transnational crimes are offenses whose inception, acts, and impact involve more than one country.
These crimes usually involve the provision of illicit goods or illicit services, or the infiltration of business or government (Dammer & Albanese, 2011). Transnational organized crime is not stagnant, but is an ever-changing industry, adapting to markets and creating new forms of crime. In short, it is an illicit business that transcends cultural, social, linguistic and geographical boundaries and one that knows no borders or rules. Drug trafficking continues to be the most lucrative form of business for criminals, with an estimated annual value of $320 billion.
In 2009, UNODC placed the approximate annual worth of the global cocaine and opiate markets alone at $85 billion and $68 billion, respectively (UNODC, 2012). Jacob Saul Stuart, 39, pleaded guilty in November 2011 to conspiracy to distribute controlled substances and conspiracy to commit money laundering. DEA and HSI special agents, using court authorized wiretaps, determined Stuart’s smuggling ring was transporting and distributing up to 2,000 pounds of marijuana and as much as 440 pounds of cocaine every month. The operation involved smuggling marijuana into the U. S. rom Canada, where it was distributed across the country to California, Illinois, Missouri, Georgia and New Jersey, among other locations. Proceeds from the marijuana sales were then used to purchase cocaine in Southern California. The cocaine was delivered to members of the outlaw motorcycle gang Hells Angels in British Columbia for distribution in Canada. Over the course of the investigation, officials seized more than $2 million and 300 pounds of cocaine; and more than 2,200 pounds of marijuana from locations across the country. Jacob Stuart was subsequently sentenced to fifteen years in prison (DHS, 2012). References
Dammer, H. and Albanese, J. (2011). Comparative criminal justice systems. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning Parker, J. (2010). Rape as an International Crime. Retrieved October 22, 2012 from: http://www. opednews. com/articles/1/RAPE-AS-AN-INTERNATIONAL-C-by-Janet-Parker-101204-241. html N. A. (2012) Transnational Drug Ring Leader: Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved October 22, 2012 from: http://www. ice. gov/news/releases/1210/121019seattle2. htm N. A. (2012) Transnational Organized Crime: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime Retrieved October 22, 2012 from: http://www. unodc. org/toc/en/crimes/organized-crime. html
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